Sectional Anatomy - Common Ultrasound terms

Helpfulness: 0
Set Details Share
created 6 years ago by Annabelle
138 views
book cover
Sonography
Chapter 4
show moreless
Page to share:
Embed this setcancel
COPY
code changes based on your size selection
Size:
X
Show:
1

Acoustic enhancement

Considered a type of sonographic artifact

"increased echo amplitude" or "posterior through transmission" visualized posterior to a structure that does not attenuate (decrease, stop, impede, or absorb) the sound beam. Considered a type of sonographic artifact

2

ALARA

As low as reasonably achievable

The prudent use of diagnostic sonography; dictates that the output level and exposure time to ultrasound is minimized while obtaining diagnostic data.

3

Anterior (ventral)

situated at of directed toward the front. A structure in front of another structure.

4

Acoustic impedance

resistance a material provides to the passage of sound waves.

5

Acoustic shadows

edge shadowing artifact

"reduced echo amplitude" or echo "drop off" posterior to a structure that attenuates (decreases, stops, impedes or absorbs) the sound beam. Margins of the shadow are generally sharp and well defined.

6

Anechoic

black

term used to describe an echo-free appearance on a sonogram image

7

Artifact

image artifacts are echo features or structures observed on ultrasound images that are unassociated with the object being imaged.

8

Ascites

Accumulation of serous fluid anywhere in the abdominopelvic cavity

9

Attenuation

decrease in the intensity of the sound beam as it passes through a structure, caused by absorption, scatter, or beam diverence

10

Axial (short axis)

at right angles to longitudinal sections

11

Beam Divergence

widening of the sound beam as it travels

12

Calcili

"stones"

concentration of mineral salts that may accoumpany some disease process.

13

Calipers (electronic)

Two or more measurement cursors that can be manipulated to calibrate the distance between echoes of interest on the imaging screen.

14

Color Flow Doppler

Doppler shift information in a two-dimensional presentation superimposed on a real-time gray scale anatomic cross-sectional image

15

Complex mass

abnormal mass within the body composed of both tissue and fluid.

16

Contralateral

situated on or affecting the opposite side

17

Contrast

A comparison to show difference

18

Coronal Scanning Planes

Any plane parallel to the long axis of the body and perpendicular to sagittal scanning planes.

19

Coupling Agent

Substance used to reduce air between the ultrasound transducer and surface of the skin.

20

Crura of Diaphragm

Right and left crus or fibromuscular bands arising from the lumbar vertebrae that insert into the central tendon of the diaphragm.

21

Cystic

Describing the sonographic appearance of a fluid filled collection with the body that does not meet the criteria to be considered a true cyst

22

Deep

internal, situated away from the surface

23

Depth of penetration

maximum distance the sound beam travels from the transducer through a medium

24

Diffuse Disease

Infiltrative disease throughout an organ that disrupts the otherwise normal sonographic appearance of organ parenchyma

25

Distal

situated farthest from the point of origin

26

Doppler Effect

change in observed sound frequency caused by relative motion between the source of the sound reflector and the observer

27

Echogenic

A lot of echoes

Describes a structure that is able to produce echoes of echo patterns.

28

Echopenic

few echoes

29

Echo texture

Describes the sonographic appearance of soft tissue structures within the body

30

Extraorgan Pathology

Abnormal disease process that originates outside of an organ

31

Focal / Multifocal change

Disease process confined to isolated areas of an organ

32

Focal Zone

The point at which the sound beam is the narrowest and the resolution is the best.

33

Gray Scale

Scale of achromatic colors having multiple graduations from white to black

34

Heterrogeneous

Describes an irregular or mixed echo pattern of organ parenchyma on a sonographic image.

35

Homogeneous

Describes an uniform or similar echo pattern of organ parenchyma on a sonographic image.

36

Hyperechoic

Comparative term used to describe an area in a sonographic image where the echoes are brighter relative to surrounding structures.

37

Inferior (caudal)

Toward the feet
situated below or directly downward
A structure lower than another

38

Infiltrative

Diffuse disease process that spreads throughout an entire organ

39

Intraorgan Pathology

Abnormal disease process that originates within an organ

40

Intraperitoneal

Abdominopelvic structures enclosed in the sac formed by the parietal peritoneum

41

Ipsilateral

situated on or affecting the same side

42

Isogenic / Isosonic

Comparative term used to describe an area in a sonographic image where the echo patterns are equal in echogenicty

43

Lateral

Pertaining to the right or left of the middle of midline of the body. Describes a structure situated at , on, or toward the side.

44

Localized Disease

Represents a circumscribed mass or multiple masses

45

Long Axis

represents the longest length of a structure

46

longitudinal

Pertains to length; running lengthwise

47

Mass

circumscribed disease process

48

Medial

Situated at, on, or toward the middle or midlone of the body

49

Medium

Any material through which sound waves travel

50

Mesentary

A double fold of peritoneum that connects intraperitoneal organs to the abdominal wall

51

Mirror image Artifact (non-Doppler)

The sonographic image of a structure is duplicated in an atypical position and appears as a mirror image of the original

52

Necrotic

Degeneration or "death" of tissue

53

Neoplasm

New, abnormal growth of existing tissue; either benign or malignant

54

Orthogonal

at right angles; perpendicular

55

Parenchyma

Tissue composing an organ

56

Peritoneum

Thin sheets of tissue that lines the peritoneal cavity and secretes serous fluid. which serves as lubricant and facililates free movement between organs

57

Pleural effusion

a collection of fluid inside the lungs

58

Posterior (dorsal)

Situated at or directed toward the back. A structure behind another structure

59

Proximal

Situated closest to the point of origin or attachment.

60

Retroperitoneum

Area of the abdominopelvic cavity located behind or posterior to the peritoneum.

61

Midsagittal

Any plane parallel to the long axis of the body and perpendicular to the coronal scanning plane.

62

Septation

Thin, membranous inclusion within a mass

63

Solid Mass

Abnormal mass within the body composed of on thing tissue

64

Sonogram

Pictorial record with ultrasound

65

Sonographer

Highly skilled allied-health professional qualified by technologic education to perform ultrasound examinations of patients and document the results under the supervision of a physician

66

Sonologist

The physician who interprets a sonogram

67

Superficial

External
Situated on or toward the surface

68

Superior

Toward the head
Situated above or directed upward
A structure higher than another structure

69

Systemic

Pertains to the body as a whole

70

TGG

Time gain compensation

Increase in receiver gain with time to compensate for loss in echo amplitude, usually due to attenuation, with depth

71

Through Transmission

considered an artifact

"Increased echo amplitude" or "acoustic enhancement" visulized posterior to a structure that does not attenuate (decrease, stop, impede or absorb) the sound beam.

72

Transducer

A device capable of converting electrical energy to mechanical energy and vice versa

73

Tranmission

Term implying passage of energy through a material

74

Transverse Scanning Plane

Any plane perpendicular to the long axis of the body

75

True Cyst

Abnormal mass within the body composed of fluid

76

Ultrasound

Sound at frequencies above 20 kilohertz or above the range of human hearing