Chemical Bonding- Chapter 7

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Chemistry
Chapter 7
updated 7 years ago by crohttis
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College: Second year
Subjects:
chemistry, science
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1

anion

a negatively charged ion

2

binary compound

a compound consisting if two elements; may be ionic or covalent

3

bond dissociation energy

the stabilization of a bonded pair of atoms compared to the same atoms when separated; the energy required to break bonding between a pair of atoms; AKA bond energy

4

bonding pair

a pair of electrons involved in a covalent bond; AKA shared pair

5

bond length

the distance between the nuclei of two bonded atoms

6

cation

a positively charged ion

7

chemical bonds

attractive forces that hold atoms together in elements and compounds

8

covalent bond

a chemical bond formed by the sharing of one or more electron pairs between atoms

9

covalent compound

a compound containing predominately covalent bonds

10

debye

the unit used to express dipole moments

11

delocalization of electrons

refers to bonding electrons distributed among more than 2 atoms that are bonded together; occurs in species that exhibit resonance

12

dipole

refers to the separation of charge between two covalently bonded atoms

13

double bond

a covalent bond resulting from the sharing of four electrons ( 2 pairs) between two atoms

14

electron-deficient compound

a compound containing at least one atom (other than H) that has fewer than 8 valence shell electrons

15

Expanded valence shell

describes a group A (representative) atoms that contains more than 8 valence shell electrons

16

formal charge

the hypothetical charge of an atom in a convalently bonded molecule or ion; bonding electrons are counted as though they were shared equally between 2 bonded atoms

17

heteronuclear

consisting of different elements

18

homonuclear

consisting of only one element

19

ion

an atom or a group of atoms that carries an electrical charge

20

Ionic bonding

the attraction of oppositely charged ions (cations and anions) in large numbers to form a solid. Ions result from the transfer of one or more electrons from one atom or a group of atoms to another

21

Ionic compound

a compound containing predominantly ionic bonding

22

Lewis acid

a substance that happens to share a pair of electrons from another species

23

lewis base

a substance that makes available a share in an electron pair

24

lewis formula

the representation of a molecule, ion, or formula by showing atomic symbols and only outer shell electrons; does not represent the shape of the molecule or ion. Each bonding pair can be represented by a pair of dots (the lewis dot formula) or a dash (the lewis dash formula)

25

lone pair

a pair of electrons residing on one atom and not shared by other atoms; AKA unshared pair

26

monatomic ion

an ion that consists of only one atom

27

non-polar bond

a covalent bond between two atoms with the same electronegativity so that the electron density is symmetrically distributed

28

octet rule

many representative elements attain at least a share of eight electrons in their valence shells when they form molecular ionic compounds

29

polar bond

a covalent bond between two atoms with different electronegativities so that the electron density is unsymmetrically distributed

30

polyatomic ion

an ion that consists of more than one atom

31

resonance

a concept in which 2 or more lewis formulas for the same arrangement of atoms (resonance Structures) are used to describe the bonding in a molecule or atom

32

single bond

a covalent bond resulting from from the sharing of two electrons (one pair) between two atoms

33

triple bond

a covalent bond resulting from the sharing of 6 electrons (three pairs) between two atoms

34

Valence Electrons

The electrons in the outermost shell of an atom