Chemical Periodicity- Chapter 5
The A group elements of the periodic Table
have distinct and regular variations in their properties with changes in atomic number
The B group elements of the periodic table
they are characterized by electron filling the d-orbitals
(AKA inner transition elements)
elements in which electrons are beings added to the f orbitals
located b/t 3b and 4b in the periodic table
-the outermost electrons in an elements orbitals. ( Can only be S or P orbitals)
-have the greatest influence on the properties of an element
What happens when you add electrons to the the S or P orbitals? D or F orbitals?
S or P Electrons being added usually causes dramatic changes in the physical and chemical properties. Adding D or F electrons usually has a smaller effect on properties.
What kind of physical properties show periodic variations?
Melting points, boiling points, and atomic volumes
Effective Nuclear Charge- Zeff
the nuclear charge experienced by the outer most electrons of an atom; the actual nuclear charge minus the effects of shielding due to inner shell electrons
the radius of an atom
electrons in filled sets of s and p orbitals between the nucleus and outer shell electrons shield the outer shell electrons somewhat from the effect of protons in the nucleus; also called the screening effect
Atoms become increasingly smaller due to increasing effective nuclear charges even though more electron are being added in which direction on the periodic table?
as we move across the periodic table
as shells are being added to shells further from the nucleus, what happens to the atomic radii from top to bottom on the periodic table? across the periodic table?
First Ionization Energy (IE1)
first ionization potential
the minimum amount of En required to remove the most loosely bound electron from an isolated gaseous atom to form an ion with a 1+ charge
Second ionization Energy (IE2)
the amount of En required to remove the second electron
Electron Affinity (EA)
the En change when an electron is added to an isolated gaseous atom to form an ion with a 1- charge
having the same number of electrons
Transition Series (4)
1st transition series- 4s and 3d orbitals occupied
2nd transition series- 5s and 5d orbitals occupied
3rd transition series- 6s and 5d orbitals occupied
4th transition series- 7s and 6d orbitals occupied