Chapter 16

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College: First year
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microbiology
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1

You note that the body temperature of one of your patients is starting to increase. As a result, you can infer that all of the following may be occurring in this patient EXCEPT __________.

dilation of blood vessels

2

Which statement regarding the lymphatic system is true?

Lymphatic capillaries possess one-way valves. These valves permit the uptake of fluid from the body but do not allow the fluid to flow back out of the capillaries into the intracellular spaces.

3

What does the plasma membrane of a phagocyte attach to on a microorganism?

Glycoproteins

4

The process by which a phagocyte moves toward a chemical signal at the site of an infection is called

chemotaxis.

5

Which of the following phagocytic processes occurs last in the sequence?

Exocytosis

6

What is the role of opsonins?

They create "handles" that make it easier for the pseudopods of phagocytes to attach to the microbe invader.

7

What is a phagolysosome?

The structure that results from the fusion of a phagosome and a lysosome.

8

Which of the following statements about innate immunity is true?

Innate immunity is present at birth.

9

Which of the following statements concerning phagocytosis is true?

Bacteria are digested when the phagosome fuses with a lysosome.

10

Innate immunity

is nonspecific and present at birth.

11

All of the following protect the skin and mucous membranes from infection EXCEPT

HCl.

12

Which of the following exhibits the highest phagocytic activity?

macrophages

13

A child falls and suffers a deep cut on her leg. The cut went through her skin and she is bleeding. Which of the following defense mechanisms will participate in eliminating contaminating microbes?

phagocytosis in the inflammatory response

14

Which of the following statements is TRUE?

Gamma interferon causes bactericidal activity by macrophages.

15

Which of the following is an effect of opsonization?

increased adherence of phagocytes to microorganisms

16

Which of the following statements about fixed macrophages is FALSE?

They develop from neutrophils.

17

Phagocytes utilize all of the following to optimize interaction with microorganisms EXCEPT

lysozyme

18

All of the following are effects of histamine EXCEPT

fever.

19

Activation of C3a results in

acute inflammation.

20

Digestion of microorganisms occurs in phagosomes.

False

21

Complement proteins act as opsonins by binding to microorganisms and promoting phagocytosis.

False

22

Microorganisms that are members of the normal microbiota are also known to cause disease.

True

23

Which non-specific defense mechanism is mismatched with its associated body structure or body fluid?

mucociliary escalator intestines

24

All of the following occur during inflammation. What is the first step?

vasodilation

25

Innate immunity includes all of the following EXCEPT

production of antibody.

26

Each of the following provides protection from phagocytic digestion EXCEPT

formation of phagolysosomes.

27

All of the following increase blood vessel permeability EXCEPT

lysozymes.

28

Activation of C3 results in __________.

all of these- release of histamine and other pro-inflammatory chemicals, formation of a membrane attack complex (MAC), which causes cytolysis of bacteria, enhancement of phagocytosis via opsonization.