Organic Chem Final
some organic compounds do not contain carbon
all organic compounds have bonds formed by electron transfer
propane is polar
alkanes are unsaturated compounds
the single bond in alkanes can be broken easily
alkynes are unsaturated compounds
the molecular formula for benzene is C6H6
carbon atom in compounds has to have four bonds
hydrogen atom in compounds can have up to four bonds
plastic products can be made of polymers of alkenes
most organic compounds are
insoluble in water
contain the carbon element
have low melting and boiling points
have covalent bonds
alkanes with one to four carbon atoms
the carbon atom in methane has
hydrogen atom will have
alkanes combust with oxygen to produce
carbon dioxide, water and heat
structural isomers have
the same molecular formula but different structural formula
geometric isomers have
the same molecular and structural formula
carbon and hydrogen
the oxidation of aldehydes produces
the hydrolysis of esters in the presence of base produces
the salt of carboxylic acid and alcohol
the reduction of aldehydes produces
the dehydration of alcohols at high temperature produces
the oxidation of secondary alcohol produces
the pungent smell found in onion and garlic is due to
the addition of oxygen or removal of hydrogen
alcohols with ten carbons are
insoluble in water
how many bonds does the carbon in methanol have
nitrogen always makes________ bonds
produce H3O+ in water
produce OH- in water
the compound ethanal is
the compound 2 butanone is
the class of compounds that gives fruits their smell and flavor
lipids are insoluble in water
the melting point of fatty acids decrease with increasing the number of double bonds
saturated fatty acids contain one or more double bonds
unsaturated fatty acids are more likely to be liquids are room temperature
soaps are produced by the base hydrolysis of triglycerides
the plasma membrane is made of a bilayer of phospholipids
enantiomers have identical chemical properties
an organic compound is chiral is it has one or more carbon atoms attached to four different atoms or groups
saturated fatty acids are solids at room temperature
enantiomers are sterioisomers that are mirror images of each other
fatty acids are
long chain carboxylic acids
unsaturated fatty acids have irregular structures because
their double bonds are in the cis configuration
commercially liquid vegetable oils are converted to solid fats such as margarine by
saturating some of the double bonds
compounds belonging to the steroids class of lipids
testosterone, estrogens and progesterone, and cholesterol
the sugar that is usually found in glycolipids is
monosaccharides that have the aldehyde functional group
glucose and galactose
the diagnostic test for diabetes reflects
the oxidation of the aldehyde group of glucose to carboxylic acid
the ABO blood type is do to the
presence of carbohydrates on the surface of the red blood cell
contain the elements C,H and O
Soaps are effective on both polar and nonpolar substances because
they have polar charged heads and nonpolar tails
lactose is made up of
one beta galactose and one alpha glucose
the bond that links the fatty acids to glycerol in triglycerides is
glycogen is a polymer of
the class of lipids consisting of glycerol bonded to two fatty acid molecules and a phosphate group
a class of lipids composed of multicyclic ring system
polysaccharides that contain alpha 1, 6 glycosidic bonds
amylopectin and glycogen
long chain carboxylic acids linked to long chain alcohols by ester bonds
a monosaccharide that is know as blood sugar
monosaccharide that is a ketose
sucrose is made up of
glucose and fructose
the component of starch that has no branches
the major component of starch
the polysaccharide that cannot be digested by humans
the storage form of glucose in animals
the polysaccharide that is most branched
may also contain O, S, N, and halogens.
have covalent bonds.
have low melting points.
have low boiling points.
are soluble in nonpolar solvents.
are not soluble in water.
all single bonds
at least one double bond
at least one triple bond
at least one benzene ring
have the same molecular formula (same
number of C and H)
have different structural formula (atom arrangements)
insoluble in water.
less dense than water.
flammable in air.
methane, ethane, propane, and butane.
gases at room temperature.
used as heating fuels.
Alkanes with 1-4 carbon atoms are
liquids at room temperature.
pentane, hexane, heptane, and octane.
used to make gasoline
Alkanes with 5-8 carbon atoms are
Are liquids at room temperature
have higher boiling points.
are found in kerosene, diesel, and jet fuels
Alkanes with 9-17 carbon atoms
have high molar masses.
are waxy solids at room temperature.
used in waxy coatings of fruits and vegetables.
Alkanes with 18 or more carbon atoms
Alkane + O2 CO2 + H2O + heat
Alkanes combustion reactions
molecules with the same molecular formula but different structural formula
( carbons are connected differently)
molecules with the same molecular formula and structural formula but different in orientation in space.
a ring of 6 C atoms and 6 H atoms.
a flat ring structure drawn with three double bonds
contains a hydroxyl group (—OH) attached to a benzene ring.