The Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)

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1

Mechanoreceptors

touch, pressure, vibration (not encapsulated)

2

Thermoreceptors

temperature (not encapsulated)

3

Photoreceptors

light energy

4

Chemoreceptors

chemicals, taste, smell, blood volume

5

nocireceptors

pain (not encapsulated)

6

location of receptors

extero: outside body; skin-touch, pressure, pain
intero: inside body and organs; temperature, chemicals
proprio: stretch in skeletal muscle, joints, ligaments

7

Encapsulated dendritic endings

all mechanoreceptors (tactile: touch, lamellar: pressure/vibration, bulbous: pressure, muscle)

8

Levels of neural integration

receptor: transduction must reach threshold for AP
circuit: 3rd neuron must conduct upward impulse
perceptual: depends on specific location of target neuron

9

sensory percerption: feature abstraction

identifying complex aspects

10

quality discrimination

submodalities: sweet vs sour

11

pattern recognition

melody of music

12

structure of the nerve

endoneurium- loose CT surrounding axons and myelin sheath

perineurium- coarse CT bundle fibers = fascicles

epineurium- tough sheath around nerve

13

mixed nerves

nerves that move toward and away from CNS

14

Cranial nerves (12)

Only Owls Observe Them Traveling And Finding Voldemort Guarding Very Secret Horcruxes

15

Which are sensory, motor, or both neurons?

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16

Olfactory

Smell

17

Optic

Visual

18

Oculomotor

Eye movements

19

Trochlear

Eye direction

20

Trigeminal

Face and mastification

21

Abducens

rectus muscle

22

Facial

Facial expressions, sensory taste

23

Vestibulocochlear

sensory function

24

Glossopharyngeal

Swallowing, taste, chemo/baroreceptors

25

Vagus

thoracic and abdominal viscera, taste buds

26

accessory

exits skull via jugular formation

27

hypoglossal

swallowing and speech

28

spinal nerves

31 pairs that supports everything but head and neck

29

ventral roots

motor (efferent) neurons

30

dorsal roots

sensory (afferent) neurons

31

Plexus

intertwining of nerve fibers that innervates limb muscles
damage to one doesn't cause paralysis

32

phrenic nerve

diaphragm

33

brachial plexus

upper limbs

34

lumbar plexus

butt, pelvic, thigh, lower limbs

35

sciatic nerve

longest and thickest nerve of the body found in leg/foot

36

somatic reflex

activates skeletal muscle

37

autonomic reflex

visceral effectors and muscle glands

38

spinal reflex

important to assess nervous system condition

39

stretch reflex

reciprocal inhibition, maintains muscleton

40

tendon

prevents damage due to excessive stretching; muscle relaxation

41

flexor

painful stimulus

42

crossed-extensor

maintains balance

43

superficial-plantar

flexion of toes downward; Babinski's sign in infants due to incomplete myelination

44

abdominal

contraction of abdominal muscles

45

dermatomes

skin innervated by cutaneous branches of single spinal nerve