Give 3 basic features of all cells
Ribosomes, Plasma Memberane, and Chromosomes
Explain Endosympoinet Theory
The prokonic cell injected another single cell organism and created a symboloic relationship.
Two Laws of Thermodynames
Law 1- energy can be translated and transformed
Law 2- energy transfer or increase in energy.
Energy that can do work when the temperature and pressure form as in a living cell.
the cells energy shuttle, composed ribsome (sugar), adennine (nitrogrgen base), and three phosphate grains.
Give the phases of mitosis
Interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telephase, and cytokensis.
Basic chemical formula for cellular respiration
C6H12O6+6O2 (ARROW) 6CO2+6H20+ energy + (ADP + heat)
Some Eukaryotic animal cells have cell walls?
Plant Cells have chloroplasts and mitochondria?
DNA, Ribosome, and a Plasma Membrane
The evolution of eukaryotic cells most likely involved?
Endosymbiosis of an aerobic bacterium in a larger host cell- the endosymbiont envolved into mitochondria.
The type of organelle or structure that is primarily involved in the synthesis of oils, phospholipids, and steroids.
Smooth Endoplasmic Recticulum
The diffrence in lipid and protein composition between the membranes of the endomembrane system is largely determined by?
The function of the Goldi appartaus in sorting and directing membrance componets.
The liver is involved in detoxification of many posion and drugs. Which of the following structures is primarily involved in this process and therefore abundant in liver cells?
Contains hydrolytic enzymes?
The organelle that takes up much of the volume of a plant cell?
Organelle that the primary site of ATP synthesis is eukaryotic cells?
Plant cell organelle that contains its own DNA and ribsomes?
In a plant cell, DNA may be found?
In the nucleus, mitochondria, and chloroplasts
Ions can travel directly from the cytoplasm of one animal cell to the cytoplasm of an adjacent cell through?
4 notable diffrences between Eularyotic and Prokaryotic cell types.
- Location of the DNA
- E cells have cytoplasm suspended in cytosol which are absent in p cells.
-E cells are more larger than p cells.
- P cells are single cell organisms, e include plants, fungi, and animals.
Phosolipids cannot move laterally along the plane of a cell membrane.
What types of molecules are the major structrua componets of the cell membrane?
Phospholipids and proteins
The presence of cholesterol in the plasma membranes of some animals do what?
It enables the membrane to stay fluid more easily when cell temperature drops.
Reasonable explanation for why unsaturated fatty acids help keep any membrane more fluid at lower temperatures?
The double bonds from kinks in the fatty acid talks, preventing adjacent lipds from packing tightly.
Cell membrane are asymmetrical. What is the explanation?
The two sides of a cell membrane face different environments and carry out different functions.
Is a characteristic feature of a carrier protein in a plasma membrane?
It exhibits a specificity for a particular type of molecule.
It is a passive process in which molecules move from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration.
When a plant cell, such as one from a peony stem, is submerged in a very hypotonic solution, what is likely to occur?
The cell will become turgid
Proton pumps are used in various ways by members of every domain of organims: Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukararya. What does this most probaly mean?
Proton gradients across a membrance were used by cells that were the common ancestor of all three domains of life.
The white blood cell that engulfs bacteria through what process?
The diffrence between pinocytosis and receptor-mediated endocytosis ?
Pinocytosis is nonselective in the molecules it brings into the cell, whereas receptor- mediated endocytosis offers selectivty.
A bacterium engulfed by a white blood cell through phagocytosis will be digested by enzymes conatined in?
The cell "gulps" droplets of extracellular fluid into tiny vesticles.
A cell engults a particle by wrapping pseudopdia around it and packaging it with a membrane sac called a food vaculoe.
The metaphase plate occurs when the cell pinches into two daughter cells during mitosis?
A cell with ites expected number of chromsomes is called "diploid"?
If there are 20 chomatids in a cell, how may centromeres are there?
What is a cleavage furrow?
A groove in the plasma membrane between daughter nuclei.
Why do neurons and some other specialized cells divide infrequently?
They have been shunted into G0
Which of the following does not occur during mitosis?
A replication of DNA
2 properties that would alert a doctor to be the fact that a cell was cancerous?
They divide successfully and invade other tissues.
Every chemical reaction must decrease the total entropy of the universe?
Which term most precisely describes the cellular process of breaking down large molecules into smaller ones?
True about the metabolism in its entirety in all organisms?
Metabolism consists of all the energy transformation reactions in an organism
A chemical reaction that has a positive TRIANGLE D is correctly described as?
Why is ATP an important molecule in metabolism?
It provides energy coupling between exergonic and endergonic reactions.
When chemical, transport, or mechanical work is done by an organism, what happens to the heat generated?
It is lost to the environment.
Reactants capable of interacting to form products ina chemical reaction must first overcome a thermodynamic barrier know as the reaction's?
The active site of an enzyme is the region that?
Is involved in the cataytic reaction of the enzyme.
Besisdes turning enzymes on or off, what other means does a cell use to control enzymatic activity?
localization of enzymes into specific activity
MOdt cells cannot harness heat to perform work because?
Temperature is usually uniform throughout a cell.
The molecule that functions as the reducing agent (electron donor) in a redox or exidation- reduction loses electrons and loses potential enrgy
Glycolysis is e cells will proceed normally whether pxygen (O2) is present or absent?
When a molecule of NAD+ gains hydrogen atom (not a proton), the molecule becomes?
The oxygen consumed during cellular respiration is involved directly in which process or event?
Accepting electrons at the end of the electron tansport chain
In additon to ATP, what are the end products of glycolysis?
NADH and pyruvate
During aerobic respiration, electrons travel downhill in which sequence/
Food, NADH, ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN, AND THEN OXYGEN
The primary role of oxygen in ceullar respiration is to?
Act as an acceptor for electrons and hydrorgen, forming water.
When hydrogen ions are pumped from the mitochondrial matirx acorss the inner membrane and into the intermembrance space, the result is the?
Creation of a proton- motive force.
In the absence of oxygen, yeast cells can obtain energy by fermentation, resulting in the production of?
ATP, oyruvate, and oxygen
The statement that best supports the hypotheis that glycolysis is an ancient metabolic pathway that orginated before the last universal common ancestor of life on earth?
Glycolysis is widespread and is found in the domains Bacteria, Archaea and Eukarya.
During the light reactions of photosynthesis light is absorbed to reaction-center chlorophyll a?
Cartenoids are often found in foods that are considered to have antioxidant properties in human nutrion. What related function do they have in plants?
They protect against oxidative damage from excessive light energy.
The following statements best represent the relationships between the light reactions and the Calvin Cycle?
The light reactions provide ATP and NADPH to the Calvin Cycle, and the cycle returns ADP i, and NADP+ to the light reactions.