Chapter 5

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1

In general, which of the following can human cells do?
1. Protect themselves
2. Regulate life processes
3. Reproduce

1 and 2 only

1 and 3 only

2 and 3 only

1, 2, and 3

1, 2, and 3

2

Inorganic materials are compounds that __________ carbon.

contain only very small amounts of

contain moderate amounts of

contain large amounts of

do not contain

do not contain

3

Antibodies are protein molecules produced by specialized cells in the bone marrow called:

B lymphocytes

R lymphocytes

megakaryocytes

oocytes

B lymphocytes

4

The much smaller structures that make up nucleic acids are called:

carbohydrates

fatty acids

nucleotides

polysaccharides

nucleotides

5

The steps or rungs of the DNA ladder-like structure consists of complementary chemicals that are:

acetic acids

fatty acids

pairs of nitrogenous bases

sugar-phosphate compounds

pairs of nitrogenous bases

6

Compounds called purines include adenine and:
1. cytosine
2. guanine
3. thymine

1 only

2 only

3 only

1, 2, and 3

2 only

7

Which of the following serves as a prototype for messenger RNA (mRNA)?

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)

Nitric acid (HNO3)

Potassium (K) and sodium (Na)

Transfer RNA (tRNA)

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)

8

The cell components that contain the centrioles are the:

centrosomes

Golgi apparatus and mitochondria

lysosomes

ribosomes

centrosomes

9

The number of mitochondria in cells varies from a few hundred to several thousand. The greatest number is found in cells exhibiting _____ activity.

almost no

moderate

no

the greatest

the greatest

10

During which of the following subphases of mitosis do the centrioles migrate to opposite sides of the cell and begin to regulate the formation of the mitotic spindle?

Anaphase

Metaphase

Prophase

Telophase

Prophase

11

In the human body, mineral salts are necessary for:
1. proper cell function
2. creation of energy
3. conduction of impulses along nerves

1 and 2 only

1 and 3 only

2 and 3 only

1, 2, and 3

1, 2, and 3

12

Which of the following causes an increase in cellular activity that in turn causes biochemical reactions to occur more rapidly to meet the needs of the cell?

Acetic acids

Enzymes

Hormones

Nucleic acids

Enzymes

13

How many different amino acids are involved in protein synthesis?

7

15

22

39

22

14

A nucleotide is formed from a nitrogen-containing organic base, a _____-carbon sugar molecule, and a phosphate molecule.

three

five

seven

nine

five

15

Cytosine bonds only with:

adenine

guanine

nitrogen

thymine

guanine

16

In a DNA macromolecule, the sequence of ________ determines the characteristics of every living thing.

Sugars

Phosphates

Nitrogenous organic bases

Hydrogen bonds

Nitrogenous organic bases

17

Radiation-induced chromosome damage may be evaluated during which of the following processes?

Prophase

Metaphase

Anaphase

Telophase

Metaphase

18

If exposure to ionizing radiation damages the components involved in molecular synthesis beyond repair, cells do which of the following?

Continue to function normally

Function abnormally or die

Repair themselves immediately because of the enzymatic proteins they contain

Reproduce themselves in pairs

Function abnormally or die

19

Which of the following produces antibodies?

Erythrocytes

Lymphocytes

Thrombocytes

Platelets

Lymphocytes

20

Water constitutes approximately ________ of the weight of the human body.

30% to 35%

50% to 55%

65% to 70%

80% to 85%

80% to 85%

21

What term is used to describe chemical secretions that are manufactured by various endocrine glands and carried by the bloodstream to influence the activities of other parts of the body?

Amino acids

Antibodies

Hormones

Disaccharides

Hormones

22

Somatic cells divide through the process of:

Meiosis

Mitosis

Mapping

Metabolism

Mitosis