Chps 53_54 Quiz
In 2008, the population of New Zealand was approximately 4,275,000 people. If the birth rate was 14 births for every 1,000 people, approximately how many births occurred in New Zealand in 2008?
Which of the following is the most accepted hypothesis as to why invasive species take over communities into which they have been introduced?
a. Humans carefully select which species will outcompete nuisance native species.
b. Invasive species come from geographically isolated regions, so when they are introduced to regions where there is more competition, they thrive.
c. Invasive species are not held in check by the predators and agents of disease that have always been in place for the native species.
d. Invasive species have a higher reproductive potential than native species.
e. Invasive species are more aggressive than native species in competing for the limited resources of the environment.
Which of the following could be a density-independent factor limiting human population growth?
e. social pressure for birth control
Which of the following statements is consistent with the principle of competitive exclusion?
a. Even a slight reproductive advantage will eventually lead to the elimination of the less well adapted of two competing species.
b. Bird species generally do not compete for nesting sites.
c. The random distribution of one competing species will have a positive impact on the population growth of the other competing species.
d. Two species with the same fundamental niche will exclude other competing species.
e. Natural selection tends to increase competition between related species.
Which of the following is the most important assumption for the capture-recapture method to estimate the size of wildlife populations?
a. More individuals emigrate from, as opposed to immigrate into, a population.
b. All females in the population have the same litter size.
c. There is a 50:50 ratio of males to females in the population before and after trapping and recapture.
d. Over 50% of the marked individuals need to be trapped during the recapture phase.
e. Marked individuals have the same probability of being recaptured as unmarked individuals during the recapture phase.
Dwarf mistletoes are flowering plants that grow on certain forest trees. They obtain nutrients and water from the vascular tissues of the trees. The trees derive no known benefits from the dwarf mistletoes. Which of the following best describes the interactions between dwarf mistletoes and trees?
Which of the following best describes resource partitioning?
a. competitive exclusion that results in the success of the superior species
b. differential resource utilization that results in a decrease in community species diversity
c. two species that can coevolve to share identical niches
d. a climax community that is reached when no new niches are available
e. slight variations in niche that allow similar species to coexist
Carrying capacity is
a. seldom reached by marine producers and consumers because of the vast resources of the ocean.
b. determined by density and dispersion data.
c. fixed for most species over most of their range most of the time.
d. the maximum population size that a particular environment can support.
e. the term used to describe the stress a population undergoes due to limited resources.
Consider two forests: one is an undisturbed old-growth forest, while the other has recently been logged. In which forest are species likely to experience exponential growth, and why?
a. Logged, because the disturbed forest affords more resources for increased specific populations to grow.
b. Old growth, because of stable conditions that would favor exponential growth of all species in the forest.
c. Old growth, because each of the species is well established and can produce many offspring.
d. Exponential growth is equally probable in old-growth and logged forests.
e. Logged, because the various populations are stimulated to a higher reproductive potential.
The Allee effect is used to describe a population that
a. has exceeded its carrying capacity.
b. has become so large that it will have difficulty surviving and reproducing.
c. has become so small that it will have difficulty surviving and reproducing.
d. is viable and stable at its carrying capacity.
e. is in crash decline.
Which of the following is an example of cryptic coloration?
a. colors of an insect-pollinated flower's petals
b. a "walking stick" insect that resembles a twig
c. brown or gray color of tree bark
d. markings of a viceroy butterfly's wings
e. bands on a coral snake
Which of the following is an example of Batesian mimicry?
a. a butterfly that resembles a leaf
b. a snapping turtle that uses its tongue to mimic a worm, thus attracting fish
c. a fawn with fur coloring that camouflages it in the forest environment
d. an insect that resembles a twig
e. a nonvenomous snake that looks like a venomous snake
Species richness increases
a. as we increase in altitude in equatorial mountains.
b. as community size decreases.
c. as depth increases in aquatic communities.
d. as we travel southward from the North Pole.
e. on islands as distance from the mainland increases.
Uniform spacing patterns in plants such as the creosote bush are most often associated with
a. the concentration of nutrients within the population's range.
b. patterns of high humidity.
c. competitive interaction between individuals of the same population.
e. the random distribution of seeds.
Which of the following sets of measurements is the most useful when studying populations?
a. density, dispersion, and demographics of a population
b. ratio of predators and the number of immigrants and emigrants
c. gene frequency over time and the ratio of reproductive to nonreproductive individuals
d. minimum and maximum amounts of precipitation and annual temperature extremes
e. annual precipitation averages and mean annual temperatures
Population ecologists are primarily interested in
a. understanding how biotic and abiotic factors influence the density, distribution, size, and age structure of populations.
b. how humans affect the size of wild populations of organisms.
c. the overall vitality of a population of organisms.
d. studying interactions among populations of organisms that inhabit the same area.
e. how populations evolve as natural selection acts on heritable variations among individuals and changes in gene frequency.
Which of the following graphs illustrates the population growth curve of single bacterium growing in a flask of ideal medium at optimum temperature over a 24-hour period?
This answer is correct.
White-breasted nuthatches and Downy woodpeckers both eat insects that hide in the furrows of bark in hardwood trees. The Downy woodpecker searches for insects by hunting from the bottom of the tree trunk to the top, whereas the white-breasted nuthatch searches from the top of the trunk down. These hunting behaviors best illustrate which of the following ecological concepts?
a. bottom-up and top-down hypotheses
b. resource partitioning
c. competitive exclusion
d. keystone species
e. character displacement
Which of the following terms is used by ecologists to describe the community interaction where one organism makes the environment more suitable for another organism?
In models of logistic population growth,
a. the population growth rate slows dramatically as N approaches K.
b. new individuals are added to the population as N approaches K.
c. carrying capacity is never reached.
d. only density-dependent factors affect the rate of population growth.
e. new individuals are added to the population most rapidly at the beginning of the population's growth.
Which pattern of reproduction is correctly paired with a species?
b. iteroparityPacific salmon
c. semelparityoak tree
e. semelparity–polar bear
a. can only be transferred from animals to humans by means of an intermediate host.
b. is caused by suborganismal pathogens such as viruses, viroids, and prions only.
c. is too specific to study at the community level, and studies of zoonotic pathogens are relegated to organismal biology.
d. is caused by pathogens that are transferred from other animals to humans by direct contact or by means of a vector.
e. can only be spread from animals to humans through direct contact.
According to the nonequilibrium model,
a. community structure remains stable in the absence of interspecific competition.
b. communities are assemblages of closely linked species that are irreparably changed by disturbance.
c. interspecific interactions induce changes in community composition over time.
d. communities are constantly changing after being influenced by disturbances.
e. communities will remain in a climax state if there are no human disturbances.
Imagine five forest communities, each with 100 individuals distributed among four different tree species (W, X, Y, and Z). Which forest community would be most diverse?
a. 100W, 0X, 0Y, 0Z
b. 70W, 10X, 10Y, 10Z
c. 50W, 25X, 15Y, 10Z
d. 25W, 25X, 25Y, 25Z
e. 40W, 30X, 20Y, 10Z
The energetic hypothesis and dynamic stability hypothesis are ideas that attempt to explain
a. the length of food chains.
b. plant defenses against herbivores.
c. the evolution of mutualism.
d. resource partitioning.
e. competitive exclusion.