Dosage Forms

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created 7 years ago by pharmdstudent
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Routes of Administration, Oral Preparations, Injectable Preparations
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pharmacy
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1

Enteral Medications

given orally and pass through the GI tract to be absorbed into the bloodstream and metabolized by the liver. This includes oral, naso-gastric, and rectal routes.

2

Parenteral medications

Injected or placed into the body tissues and do not pass through the liver before entering the bloodstream. This can include injections, topical and inhalation routes.
*Generally in pharmacy, parenteral refers to injection. Topical and inhalation routes are separated into their own routes of administration.

3

Injectable drugs

Usually in the form of solutions or powders, which are mixed with a sterile diluent to render an injectable solution.

4

Inhalation

routes of administration are inhaled through the mouth or the nose and usually act directly on the respiratory system before entering into the bloodstream. They are often used to treat respiratory diseases, but gases are inhaled for general anesthesia as well.

5

Topical

dosages are applied to the skin surface or a mucous membrane

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Caplet

An oval shaped tablet

7

Oral Suspensions

The drug is mixed with, but not completely dissolved into a liquid; Needs to be shaken before administration in order to suspend the drug particles evenly

8

Elixirs

Contain between 5% and 40% alcohol

9

Tinctures

May contain as little as 17% alcohol or as much as 80% alcohol

10

Emulsions

A suspension involving one liquid in a second liquid with which the first will not mix (oil in water)

11

Oral powders

Drugs which are in a powder form and are usually dissolved in juice or water before administration

12

Lozenge and Troche

Dissolve slowly in the mouth and generally have a local effect

13

Rectal Suppositories

Solid or semi-solid bullet shaped dosage forms. They melt at body temperature, dispersing the medication.

14

Enemas

Drug is suspended in a solution and infused into the rectum

15

Epidural

Injected into the dura matter (epidural space) of the spinal cord

16

Subcutaneous

Injected into the fatty layer under the skin

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Intradermal

Injected into the top layer of the skin at a slight angle

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Intrathecal

Injected into the space surrounding the spinal cord

19

Intra-articular

Injected into the joint