given orally and pass through the GI tract to be absorbed into the bloodstream and metabolized by the liver. This includes oral, naso-gastric, and rectal routes.
Injected or placed into the body tissues and do not pass through the liver before entering the bloodstream. This can include injections, topical and inhalation routes.
*Generally in pharmacy, parenteral refers to injection. Topical and inhalation routes are separated into their own routes of administration.
Usually in the form of solutions or powders, which are mixed with a sterile diluent to render an injectable solution.
routes of administration are inhaled through the mouth or the nose and usually act directly on the respiratory system before entering into the bloodstream. They are often used to treat respiratory diseases, but gases are inhaled for general anesthesia as well.
dosages are applied to the skin surface or a mucous membrane
An oval shaped tablet
The drug is mixed with, but not completely dissolved into a liquid; Needs to be shaken before administration in order to suspend the drug particles evenly
Contain between 5% and 40% alcohol
May contain as little as 17% alcohol or as much as 80% alcohol
A suspension involving one liquid in a second liquid with which the first will not mix (oil in water)
Drugs which are in a powder form and are usually dissolved in juice or water before administration
Lozenge and Troche
Dissolve slowly in the mouth and generally have a local effect
Solid or semi-solid bullet shaped dosage forms. They melt at body temperature, dispersing the medication.
Drug is suspended in a solution and infused into the rectum
Injected into the dura matter (epidural space) of the spinal cord
Injected into the fatty layer under the skin
Injected into the top layer of the skin at a slight angle
Injected into the space surrounding the spinal cord
Injected into the joint