Internal Brain Structures

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created 9 years ago by jbernal
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Part 2 Dicephalon (forebrain)
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anatomy
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1

Thalmus

80% of Dicencephalon
consist of 2 large lobes of gray matter connected by intermediate mass (aka interthalamic)

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3 thalamic nuclei

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3

ventral posterior lateral nucleus

recieves impulses from somatic sensory

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lateral geniculate

visual relay center

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medial geniculate

auditory relay center

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hypothalmus

important in autonomic center
(regulates homostasis in body temp, fat, carbohydrate, metablolism, hunger, thirst, sleep)

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Hypthalamic nuclei:

supra optic nucleus- produces ADH (hormone)-> kidney's recover water
paraveventricular nucleus- produces oxytocin -> uterine contractions and milk production

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Epithalamus structures:

pineal body/gland- neuroendocrine that secretes melatonin (sleep)
choroid plexus- capillaries located within ventricles that form cerebrospinal fluid

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Brain Stem (also contains nuclei(island of gray matter embeded within white matter)

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cerebral pundicles

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cerebral aqueduct

CSF channel runs through middle and connect 3rd and 4th ventricles

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substantial Nigra

converts melanin (pigment) to dopamine

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red nucleus

rich blood supple an iron pigment

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pons

middle cerebral peduncles- fiber tracts connect pons with cerebellum
pontine nuclei- relay between motor cortex and cerebellum

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medulla Oblongata

decussation of the pyramid- 2 longitudinal ridges on ventral aspect where (corticospinal) motor cross opposite side of the body

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nuclei cuneatus and nuclei gracilis

synapse of ascending pathways from the skin and proprioceptors

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visceral nuclei

control HR, blood vesel diameter, respiratory rate, coughing, etc.

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olivary nuclei

sensory relay to cerebellum

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cerebellum

timing and pattern contractions in smooth movements

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vermis

(wormlike) connects convoluted hemispheres