Anthrax

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created 7 years ago by krsbai
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1

What time period in the history of the US represents the Golden Age of Biological Warfare research?

1940-1969

2

What is a biological weapon (BW)?

-living organism/infectious material intended to casue disease or death to man or animal or plants.
-agents used for hostile purposes
-used in wars
-used by terrorists

3

What type of research on Biological Warfare agents is allowed according to current international laws?

Defensive research

4

What is the difference between offensive and defensive research?

Offensive-
Defensive-vaccine development, detecting BW agent in air, drug development, developing protective gear, Ab/Ag detection methods to screen blood for infection

5

When did offensive research on BW's stop in the US?

1969

6

When was the first Bi0logical Weapons Convention held and where?

1972

7

In the Biological Weapons Treaty, are countries that sign the treaty allowed to stockpile WB's?

No

8

Are there examples in history where Biowarfare agents have been used in war or acts of terriorism?

Yes
-british gave smallpox contaminated blankets to american indians
-german agents believed to have injected horses with anthrax in USA on way back to Europe
-Japan dropped fleas infected with Plague into china,
-Japanese cult traveled to Zaire to obtain Ebola as part of their bioterror campaign

9

Genus and species name for Anthrax

Bacillus anthracis

10

Gram reaction of Anthrax

Gram positive

11

Cell shape of Anthrax

bacillus

12

Disease name of Bacillus anthracis

Anthrax

13

Virulence factors of Anthrax

-powerful exotoxin
-colorless, tasteless, odorless
-swelling & hemmorhage of tissue
-circulatory failure
-Macrophages patrol lung tissue
-Anthrax spore germinates into bacteria inside the Macrophage and then the macrophage release bacteria into bloodstream

14

How is Anthrax transmitted

In animals: they consume spores in pasture
In humans: Direct contact with anthrax spores by
-handle contaminated animal hides/wool or contaminated articles(letters)
-consume infected food
-inhale spores from the air

15

Clinical symptoms of Cutaneous anthrax

skin sore that swells and turns black

16

Clinical symptoms of Gastrointestinal anthrax

nausea, loss of appetite, vomiting, fever, abdominal pain, vomiting blood, severe diarrhea

17

Clinical symptoms for Inhalation anthrax

fluid in lungs, breathing difficult, shock

18

What does anthracis mean?

anthracite coal-shiny black

19

What disease characteristic does the word anthracis refer to?

coal, shiny black

20

Spore location of anthrax

central

21

Oxygen requirement for anthrax

aerobic

22

What are some characteristics about the virulence factor?

colorless, tasteless, odorless

23

What stage of the bacteria life cycle produces the virulence factor?

...

24

Can the bacteria produce the exotoxin in the aerobic human body?

yes

25

What are the 3 forms of anthrax

Cutaneous Anthrax
Gastrointestinal Anthrax
Inhalation Anthrax

26

What is the death rate for Cutaneous anthrax without treatment?

20%

27

What is the death rate for Gastrointestinal anthrax if untreated?

50%

28

What is the death rate for Inhalation anthrax if untreated?

90%

29

Which form is also called Wool Sorter's disease and why?

Cutaneous anthrax
can get if handle contaminated animal hides/wool if you have a cut on skin

30

Which form is most deadly?

Inhalation anthrax

31

Are any forms of anthrax contagious?

No but has had Very rare cases of contact transmission with (anthrax skin lesion)

32

Which form of anthrax is most commonly reported in the world? and which one is rarest?

cutaneous
Inhalation

33

What form of anthrax is most common in agricultural societies?

skin anthrax

34

Which form of anthrax would most likely be used in bioterrorism?

inhalation

35

What is the incubation period of anthrax?

1-6 days after exposure and up to 60days in lung infection

36

Is anthrax contagious?

No

37

What is the availability of anthrax to terrorists?

High
Found naturally in soils around the world (even USA)
Found in labs around the world

38

What is the stability of anthrax spores?

High- resistant to boiling, uv light and alcohol
resistant to drying, extreme temperature and can survive in soil for 0yrs

39

What is meant by weaponized anthrax?

(made more deadly)
Genetically engineered
remain suspended in air for long period of time
antibiotic resistant
spore size refined to very small size
modified incubation period

40

Is there a human vaccine available for anthrax?
For what age group if so?
Ad what are the components in the vaccine if there is one?

Yes
18yrs and older
isolated proteins from anthrax that stimulate immunity

41

What is the drug of choice for an active disease case of anthrax?

Cipro

42

What group of animal is most susceptible to anthrax and why?

grazing animals because they can consume spores in pasture

43

Can the animal vaccine be given to humans in an emergency?

no

44

Can the human nose trap anthrax spores? Why or why not?

Because the particles are less than 1-3 in size and only particles bigger than 20 can be trapped in nasal hairs

45

How long can anthrax spores survive in soil?

50yrs

46

Does boiling destroy anthrax spores?

no

47

how can anthrax spores be destroyed?

sterilization in autoclave, pressure cooker
chlorine dioxide gas or liquid
gamma radiation

48

Can macrophages destroy anthrax spores following phagocytosis?

No