What time period in the history of the US represents the Golden Age of Biological Warfare research?
What is a biological weapon (BW)?
-living organism/infectious material intended to casue disease or death to man or animal or plants.
-agents used for hostile purposes
-used in wars
-used by terrorists
What type of research on Biological Warfare agents is allowed according to current international laws?
What is the difference between offensive and defensive research?
Defensive-vaccine development, detecting BW agent in air, drug development, developing protective gear, Ab/Ag detection methods to screen blood for infection
When did offensive research on BW's stop in the US?
When was the first Bi0logical Weapons Convention held and where?
In the Biological Weapons Treaty, are countries that sign the treaty allowed to stockpile WB's?
Are there examples in history where Biowarfare agents have been used in war or acts of terriorism?
-british gave smallpox contaminated blankets to american indians
-german agents believed to have injected horses with anthrax in USA on way back to Europe
-Japan dropped fleas infected with Plague into china,
-Japanese cult traveled to Zaire to obtain Ebola as part of their bioterror campaign
Genus and species name for Anthrax
Gram reaction of Anthrax
Cell shape of Anthrax
Disease name of Bacillus anthracis
Virulence factors of Anthrax
-colorless, tasteless, odorless
-swelling & hemmorhage of tissue
-Macrophages patrol lung tissue
-Anthrax spore germinates into bacteria inside the Macrophage and then the macrophage release bacteria into bloodstream
How is Anthrax transmitted
In animals: they consume spores in pasture
In humans: Direct contact with anthrax spores by
-handle contaminated animal hides/wool or contaminated articles(letters)
-consume infected food
-inhale spores from the air
Clinical symptoms of Cutaneous anthrax
skin sore that swells and turns black
Clinical symptoms of Gastrointestinal anthrax
nausea, loss of appetite, vomiting, fever, abdominal pain, vomiting blood, severe diarrhea
Clinical symptoms for Inhalation anthrax
fluid in lungs, breathing difficult, shock
What does anthracis mean?
anthracite coal-shiny black
What disease characteristic does the word anthracis refer to?
coal, shiny black
Spore location of anthrax
Oxygen requirement for anthrax
What are some characteristics about the virulence factor?
colorless, tasteless, odorless
What stage of the bacteria life cycle produces the virulence factor?
Can the bacteria produce the exotoxin in the aerobic human body?
What are the 3 forms of anthrax
What is the death rate for Cutaneous anthrax without treatment?
What is the death rate for Gastrointestinal anthrax if untreated?
What is the death rate for Inhalation anthrax if untreated?
Which form is also called Wool Sorter's disease and why?
can get if handle contaminated animal hides/wool if you have a cut on skin
Which form is most deadly?
Are any forms of anthrax contagious?
No but has had Very rare cases of contact transmission with (anthrax skin lesion)
Which form of anthrax is most commonly reported in the world? and which one is rarest?
What form of anthrax is most common in agricultural societies?
Which form of anthrax would most likely be used in bioterrorism?
What is the incubation period of anthrax?
1-6 days after exposure and up to 60days in lung infection
Is anthrax contagious?
What is the availability of anthrax to terrorists?
Found naturally in soils around the world (even USA)
Found in labs around the world
What is the stability of anthrax spores?
High- resistant to boiling, uv light and alcohol
resistant to drying, extreme temperature and can survive in soil for 0yrs
What is meant by weaponized anthrax?
(made more deadly)
remain suspended in air for long period of time
spore size refined to very small size
modified incubation period
Is there a human vaccine available for anthrax?
For what age group if so?
Ad what are the components in the vaccine if there is one?
18yrs and older
isolated proteins from anthrax that stimulate immunity
What is the drug of choice for an active disease case of anthrax?
What group of animal is most susceptible to anthrax and why?
grazing animals because they can consume spores in pasture
Can the animal vaccine be given to humans in an emergency?
Can the human nose trap anthrax spores? Why or why not?
Because the particles are less than 1-3 in size and only particles bigger than 20 can be trapped in nasal hairs
How long can anthrax spores survive in soil?
Does boiling destroy anthrax spores?
how can anthrax spores be destroyed?
sterilization in autoclave, pressure cooker
chlorine dioxide gas or liquid
Can macrophages destroy anthrax spores following phagocytosis?