Which structures exit at the hilum of the kidney?
Renal artery and vein and renal ureters
Blood leaves the efferent arteriole and enters the
Peritubular capillary network
Filtrate leaves the ascending limb of the Loop of Henle and enters the
distal convoluted tubule
What is the composition of the filtrate in the capsular space?
similar to plasma, only no proteins
Why are glomerular pressures higher than pressure in other capillaries?
The efferent arteriole has a smaller diameter than the afferent arteriole, increasing resistance.
What effect does an increase in osmolarity in the Loop of Henle have on the diffusion of water?
Water diffuses into the tubule.
If the osmotic concentration of ECF increases, which of the following happens?
Water moves from cells into ECF.
A decrease in ADH in the blood leads to:
the production of a dilute urine.
The ability to control the micturition reflex depends on the ability to control which muscle?
external urinary sphincter
Renal autoregulation of GFR involves
Myogenic control and Tubuloglomerular feedback
glomerular filtration rate
Which hormone affecting electrolyte balance is responsible for determining the rate of Na+ absorption and K+ loss along the DCT?
Distal Convoluted Tube
Damage to which part of the nephron interferes with renin production and the hormonal control of blood pressure?
What effect does drinking a pitcher of distilled water have on ADH secretion?
Secretion of ADH decreases
Which of the following is the major buffer system of the ECF?
carbonic acid–bicarbonate buffer system
What effect does a decrease in the pH of body fluids have on respiratory rate?
The respiratory rate increases
What is a possible reason for the development of metabolic acidosis?
strenuous exercise due to lactic acid accumulation and diabetics who are noncompliant with their insulin
An individual has a blood pH of 7.6, a PCO2 of 62mm Hg and a HCO3¯ of 32 mM. Identify if the person is in acidosis or alkalosis; if the cause is metabolic or respiratory; and, if there is compensation
HCO3¯ > 26 mM metabolic alkalosis
PCO2 > 45mm Hg respiratory compensation
Mary has had a urinalysis that indicates a high level of bilirubin. What condition may she have?
Which structure receives sperm after it leaves the seminiferous tubules?
In the male reproductive system, the prostate gland releases an antibiotic called ________. This protects against urinary tract infections in the male.
What is the role of FSH in males?
It stimulates the production of androgen binding protein, which then, along with testosterone, promotes the maturation of sperm.
How is an oocyte transported along the uterine tube?
Ciliary movement “turns on” just before ovulation to propel the oocyte AND Peristaltic contractions of the uterine tube propel the oocyte.
Which layer of the uterus is sloughed off during menstruation?
functional layer of the endometrium
What event occurs in the uterine cycle when the levels of estrogens and progesterone decline?
What is the fate of the corpus luteum if fertilization does NOT occur?
It disintegrates into a corpus albicans
Why does oogenesis yield only one functional ovum?
Oogenesis produces 2 polar bodies, which later disintegrate.
Fertilization occurs in the _______ within _____.
ampulla-isthmus junction; 1 day of ovulation
What are the important roles of hCG in maintaining pregnancy?
It helps corpus luteum persist throughout the first trimester AND It suppresses the release of oxytocin
What is the developmental fate of the inner cell mass of the blastocyst?
It becomes an embryo
What is (are) the important function(s) of the placenta?
It produces hormones that affect maternal systems AND It is a route for waste elimination and supplying fetal tissues with nutrients.
Improper development of which of the extraembryonic membranes affects the cardiovascular system?
What are the extra embryonic membranes?
Chorion, amnion, allantois, and yolk sac
Aides in the production of the placenta.
What surrounds and protects the embryo?
What is important in the formation of the umbilical cord and placenta in
What gives the baby nutrients before the umbilical cord is formed
What would influence delivery of the fetus?
Estrogen levels increase and increase the sensitivity of smooth muscle to oxytocin AND/OR Relaxin is secreted and dilates the cervix of the uterus AND/OR Prostaglandin release stretches the uterine wall.
Prior to 2 weeks of gestation, an embryo
is sexually indifferent AND has both a Wolffian and a Mullerian duct system
The precursor of the internal male sex organs is
Wolffian duct system
In the female, they will develop to form the Fallopian tubes, uterus, cervix, and the upper two-third of the vagina; in the male, they are lost
Mullerian duct system
How is your genotype distinguished from your phenotype?
genetic makeup; anatomical and physiological characteristics of an individual
Codominant means _________. An example of a trait that is inherited in a codominant fashion is (are) ________.
both alleles are equally expressed; blood type AB