human anatomy study guide 1

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created 8 years ago by ammicucci
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chpt. 1,3,4,6,7
updated 8 years ago by ammicucci
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1

superior

above

2

inferior

below

3

anterior

front

4

posterior

behind

5

medial

middle - towards center of body

6

lateral

outside- towards the side

7

bilateral

paired structure

8

ipsilateral

structures on same side

9

proximal

body part closer to point of attachment

10

distal

body part farther from a point of attachment

11

superficial

near surface

12

deep

deep-internal

13

sagittal

lengthwise plane (divides into left and right

14

transverse

horizontal (top and bottom)

15

frontal

front and back

16

anatomy

structures of body parts

17

physiology

functions of body parts

18

rank levels of organization starting with atoms

atoms - molecules- macromolecules

cell: basic unit

group of cells = tissue
group of tissue= organs
group of organs= organ system
organ system= organism=living thing

19

5 environment factors required by organisms

water
food
oxygen
heat
pressure

20

homeostasis

stable maintenance of internal environment

21

3 components of body's homeostatic mechanisms

receptors -info about specific conditions in internal environment
set point - tells about ideal temp (98.6)
effectors - cause response that alters conditions in internal environment

22

negative feedback

controls body's homeostatic

23

cranial cavity

brain

24

vertebral cavity

spinal cord, vertebrae

25

thoracic cavity

right and left lung, heart, esophagus, trachea, thymus

26

abdominopelvic cavity

abdominal - stomach, liver, spleen, gallbladder, kidneys, large and small intestine

pelvic - large intestine, urinary bladder, internal reproductive organs

27

skull cavatities

oral - teeth, tongue
nasal - nose, divides right and left portions of septum
orbital - eyes, skeletal muscles, nerves

28

pleural membrane

lungs lining

29

pericardial membrane

heart

30

peritoneal membrane

abdominopelvic cavity lined by peritoneal membranes

31

skeletal system

consists of bones, ligaments and cartilages

32

muscular system

muscles provides forces that move body parts, maintain posture and main source of body heat

33

nervous system

brain, spinal chord, nerves, and sense organs: communicate with each other and muscles and glands using chemical systems neurotransmitters

34

endocrine system

includes glands that secrete chemical messengers called hormones: pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal glands, pancreas, ovaries, testes, pineal gland, thymus

35

cardiovascular system

heart, arteries, veins, capillaries, blood: carries blood, oxygen, nutrients to body

36

lymphatic system

lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, thymus spleen: defend body against infections by removing disease-causing microorganisms and viruses

37

digestive system

mouth, tongue, teeth, salivary glands, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, small intestine, large intestine: absorb nutrients and oxygen

38

respiratory system

moves air in and out and exchanges gases between blood and air: nasal cavity , pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs

39

urinary system

kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra: remove waste from blood and help maintain body’s water and salt

40

reproductive system

• male: scrotum, testes, epididymides, ductus deferentia, seminal vesicles, prostate gland, bulbourethral glands, penis, urethra
• female: ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus, vagina, clitoris, vulva

41

cell membrane

maintains cell and controls passage of materials into and out of cell

42

cytoplasm

cell expansion and growth

43

mitochondria

release energy from nutrient molecules and change energy into a usable form

44

nucleus

center of the cell

45

osmosis

movement of greater concentration water across a selectively permeable membrane into a lower concentration, compartment containing solute that cannot cross the same membrane

46

diffusion

tendency of molecules or ions in a liquid or air solution to move from regions of higher concentration to regions of lower concentration…. Til equilibrium is reached
occurs b/c molecules and ions are in constant motion
o occurs :
• membrane is permeable to that substance
• concentration gradient exists such that the substance is at a higher concentration on one side of the membrane

47

facilitated diffusion

substances not able to pass through the lipid bilayer need help of membrane proteins to get across; limited to 2 at a time can pass over

o uses the ion channels and pores described earlier
o insulin promotes diffusion of glucose through the membranes of certain cells
o number of carrier molecules in the cell membrane limits the rate of facilitated diffusion, occurs in most cells

48

long bone

longitudinal axes and expanded ends
ex:femur

49

short bones

cubelike- roughly equal lengths and widths
ex: wrist and ankle bones

50

irregular bones

variety of shapes and usually connected to other bones
ex: facial bones, backbone

51

sesamoid bones

usually small and nnodular, embedded with tendons
ex: kneecap (patella)

52

osteoblasts

bone cells that form new bone

53

osteoclasts

bone cells that break down bone

54

compact bone

contains osteons

55

ephiphyseal plate

growth plates

found in long bones

56

fibrous joints

bound tightly by a layer of dense connective tissue

ex: suture

57

catrilaginous joints

layer of cartilage in between joints
limited movements

ex: pelvic girdle

58

synovial joints

covered with hyaline cartilage and held together with fibrous joints

free movement
ex: multiple

59

synthroses functional joint

immovable

60

amphiarthoses functional joint

slight mov't

61

diathroses functional joint

free mov't

62

ball and socket joint
(synovial)

hip
shoulder

63

condylar joint
(synovial)

metacarpophalangeal
radiocarpal

64

plane/gliding joint
(synovial)

intercarpal
intertarsal - in wrist

65

hinge joint
(synovial)

elbow
knee

phalanges

66

pivot joint
(synovial)

radioulnar at elbow
dens at atlas

67

saddle joint
(synovial)

base of thumb with trapezium

68

flexion

decrease of an angle
usually in the sagital plane

69

extension/hyperextension

increase of an angle
usually in the sagital plane

70

abduction

movement AWAY from body
frontal plane

71

adduction

movement TOWARD midline
frontal plane

72

circumduction

circular movement

73

rotation
medial (internal)
lateral (external)

mov't along long axis
inward rotation
outward rotation

74

supination

mov't of palm of hand upward

SOUP

75

pronation

mov't of palm of hand downward

76

elevation

mov't of body part upward

77

depression

mov't of body part downward

78

dorsiflexion

mov't of ankle joint toe coming up

79

plantar flexion

mov't of ankle joint toe going down

80

inversion

toes coming up towards midline

81

eversion

toes going down towards outside

82

protraction

head coming forwards

83

retraction

head sliding backwards

84

main functions of the integumentary system

protection
temp. regulation

85

epidermis

superficial layer (near surface)

86

dermis

deep layer

87

stratum basale

deep

receives blood
cells reproduced and pushed towards skin

88

how is skin form

...

89

how is nail form

...

90

how is hair form

...

91

what determines the pigment of your skin
what is the pigment called?purpose?

protects against UV rays

92

what's errector pili muscle, what does it do?

forms goosebumps

attached to hair folicle

93

primary function of sebaceous gland

moisturizing hair folicle

94

function of sweat gland
what layer it's located in

located in dermis but comes out through epidermis skin level

95

how skin regulates temperature to increase or decrease body temp

by sweating, helps cool body down
dialating blood vessels to help cool body

constriction, blood pulls towards core to heat body

96

how external environment affect body's ability to regulate temp

humidity helps body sweat

97

filtration

small molecules go through but not big ones

98

required for active transport

ATP

99

hypertonic

high pressure

100

isotonic

same

101

hypotonic

low pressure

102

trochanter

...

103

tuberosities

...

104

foramen

holes in bone for nerves

105
card image

know the ends - which is compact and spongy bone

106

spongy bone

made of trachalae