ch 27 marieb Flashcards


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1

Primary Sex Organs

-gonads in males
-ovaries in females

2

Gonads

-produce sex cells
-secrete sex hormones

3

Gametes

-sex cells
-sperm
-ova (eggs)

4

Accessory Reproductive Organs

-ducts, glands, and external genitalia

5

What is the male reproductive role?

-make male gametes (sperm) and deliver them to the female reproductive tract so fertilization can occur

6

What is the female reproductive role?

-produce female gametes
-ova or eggs

7

What are the sex hormones in males?

-androgens

8

What are the sex hormones in females?

-estrogens and progesterone

9

What is process of arousal controlled by?

-the PNS

10

Testes

-produce sperm
-male gonads
-lie w/in the scrotum

11

Pathway of sperm to the outside of the body

-testes
-epididymis
-ductus deferens
-ejaculatory duct
-urethra
-penis

12

What accessory sex glands empty their secretions into ducts during ejaculation?

-seminal glands
-prostate
-bulbourethral glands

13

Scrotum

-sac of skin and superficial fascia that hangs outside the abdominopelvic cavity
-septum divides testes so they have their own compartment

14

Why is it good that the scrotum is outside the body?

-viable sperm cannot be produced at body temp., the location causes the location 3 degrees lower

15

What happens to the scrotum when it is cold?

-testes are pulled closer to body wall for warmth
-becomes shorter and wrinkly
-decrease surface area and increase thickness

16

What happens to the scrotum when it is warm?

-skin is flaccid and loose to increase surface area for cooling (sweating)
-testes hang lower

17

Dartos Muscle

-smooth muscle that wrinkles the scrotal skin

18

Cremaster Muscle

-bands of skeletal muscle that elevate the testes

19

What are the 2 tunics that surround the testes?

1. tunica vaginalis
2. tunica albuginea

20

Tunica Vaginalis

-outer tunic
-2 layered
-similar to peritoneum

21

Tunica Albuginea

-fibrous capsule of the testes
-divide testes into 250 lobules which contained seminiferous tubules
-surrounded by myoid cells

22

Seminiferous Tubules

-"sperm factories"
-thick stratified epithelium
-contains spermatogenic cells
-form straight tubules

23

Spermatogenic Cells

-sperm forming cells

24

Sustentocytes

-supporting cells that help sperm formation

25

Myoid Cells

-contract rhythmically, helping squeeze sperm and testicular fluids thru tubules out of the testes

26

Straight Tubules

-conveys sperm into the rete testis

27

Rete Testes

-tubular network on the posterior side of the testes

28

What happens after sperm leaves the rete testis?

-leave thru the efferent ductules and enter epididymis

29

Epididymis

-sperm passes thru the head, body, and move into the tail of epididymis where they are stored until ejaculation
-surround testes

30

Interstitial Endocrine Cells

-Leydig cells
-produce androgen (testosterone)
-secrete androgens in the surrounding interstitial fluid

31

Testicular Arteries

-supply the testes

32

Testicular Veins

-drain the testes
-arise from the pampiniform venous plexus

33

Pampiniform Venous Plexus

-surrounds the portion of each testicular artery within the scrotum like a vine
-cooler venous blood in here absorbs heat from the arterial blood cooling it before it enters the testes
-help keep testes at their cool homeostatic temperature

34

Spermatic Cord

-a connective tissue sheath encloses nerve fibers, blood vessels, and lymphatic
-pass thru inguinal canal

35

Testicular Cancer

-most common cancer in young men in ages 15 to 35
-increase risks are mumps, orchitis, and exposure to toxins before birth
-cryptorchidism
-painless solid mass

36

Orchitis

-inflammation of the testes

37

Cryptorchidism

-nondescent of the testes
-testes actually form in the body and then descend and find their way to the scrotum

38

Male Perineum

-around the anus
-suspends scrotum and contains the root of the penis and the anius
-diamond shaped region between pubic symphysis, coccyx, and ischial tuberosities

39

Penis

-designed to deliver sperm into the female reproductive tract
-penis and scrotum make up the external genitalia

40

Glans Penis

-an attached root and a free body or shaft that ends in an enlarged tip

41

Prepuce

-cuff formed when the skin slides distally
-foreskin

42

Circumcision

-reduces risks of HIV and other reproductive system infections
-foreskin is surgically removed

43

Erectile Tissue

-spongy network of connective tissue and smooth muscle (vascular spaces)
-during sexual excitement, these fill with blood causing the penis to become rigid and enlarged (erection)

44

Corpus Spongiosum

-surrounds urethra
-form the glands and bulb of the penis

45

Corpus Cavernosa

-make up most of the penis
-bounds by fibrous tunica albuginea
-ends form crura of the penis

46

Vasectomy

-produces sterilization when you don't want children anymore
-snip scrotum, snip the vas deferens before it goes through the canal which causes sperm to never travel and mature
-can still have erection

47

Epididymis Head, Body, and Tail

-head contains efferent ductules and cap superior part of testes
-body and tail are on the posterolateral area of the testis

48

Duct of the Epididymis

-pseudostratified epithelial cells
-contain stereocilia
-allows them to absorb testicular fluid and to pass nutrients to the sperm

49

How are sperm ejaculated?

-smooth muscle of the duct of epididymis contracts, expelling sperm into the ductus deferens

50

Can sperm be stored in the epididymis for several months?

-yes, but if they are held longer, epithelial cells will phagocytize them
-sperm are continuously generated

51

Ductus Deferens

-vas deferens
-runs upwards as part of the spermatic cord from the epididymis thru the inguinal canal into the pelvic cavity
-runs up from the bladder to form the ampulla to join the seminal vesicle and form the ejaculatory duct
-easily palpated

52

Ejaculatory Duct

-enters prostate and empties into the urethra

53

What happens in the ductus deferens during ejaculation?

-smooth walls create peristaltic waves that squeeze sperm forward along the tract and into the urethra

54

Urethra

-conveys both urine and semen

55

Seminal Glands (Seminal Vesicles)

-pouched, coiled, and foiled back on itself
-fibrous capsule encloses a thick layer of smooth muscle that contracts during ejaculation to empty the gland

56

Seminal Gland Mucosa

-contains crypts that have a yellowish alkaline fluid containing fructose sutra, citric acid, a coagulating enzyme (vesiculase) and other prostaglandins that enhance sperm motility or fertilizing ability
-join ductus deferens
-sperm and seminal fluid mix together

57

Prostate Gland

-contains a stroma of smooth muscle and dense connective tissue
-during ejaculation, smooth muscle contracts, squeezing prostatic secretion into the prostatic urethra
-activates sperm and

58

What does the prostate gland produce?

-a milky, slightly acidic fluid that contains citrate, several enzymes and acid and prostate specific antigen

59

Fibrinolysin

-breaks down clotted ejaculation

60

BPH

-benign prostatic hyperplasia
-distorts urethra
-strain to urinate
-enhances risks of bladder infection and kidney damage
-elevated levels of PSA can indicate this

61

Bulbo-Urethral Gland

-produce a thick, clear mucus, and lubricates the glans penis when a man becomes sexually excited
-mucus neutralizes traces of acidic urine and lubricates urethra prior to ejaculation

62

Semen

-milky, white, somewhat sticky mixture of sperm, testicular fluid, and accessory gland secretions
-transport medium and nutrients
-contain chemicals that protect and activate sperm and facilitate movement

63

What does semen contain?

-prostaglandins
-relaxin
-ATP which provides energy
-suppressant of the immune response
-antibiotic chemicals destroy bacteria
-clotting factors

64

Prostaglandins in Semen

-decrease viscosity of mucus guarding the cervix of the uterus
-stimulate reverse peristalsis in the uterus
-facilitate sperm movement thru the female reproductive tract

65

Relaxin

-enhance sperm motility

66

Clotting Factors

-causes sperm to stick to the walls of the vagina and prevents the immobile sperm from draining out of the vagina

67

What does alkalinity do the semen?

-helps neutralize the acid environment of the males urethra and the females vagina
-protecting sperm and enhancing motility

68

Seminal Plasmin

-antibiotic chemical that destroys certain bacteria and other factors that reduce immune response in female tract

69

How much sperm is released in 2-5ml?

-20 to 150 million sperm per ml

70

Erection

-enlargement and stiffening of the penis from engorgement of the erectile bodies with blood

71

What does sexual excitement trigger?

-a parasympathetic reflex that promotes the release of nitric oxide
-NO relaxes smooth muscle, dilating arterioles and the erectile bodies fill with blood
-corpus cavernosa compresses drainage veins, maintaing engorgement
-spongiosum keep urethra open during ejaculation

72

What can stimulate an erection?

-touch, mechanical stimulation, erotic sights, sounds, and smells
-emotional or higher mental activity

73

How does alcohol inhibit an erection?

-prevents blood flow to penis so the drainage veins don't collapse

74

Impotence

-inability to attain an erection

75

Ejaculation

-propulsion of semen from the male duct system
-sympathetic control
-spinal reflex is initiated and massive discharge of nerve impulses occurs over the sympathetic nerves

76

What happens to bladder sphincter muscle during ejaculation?

-constricts, preventing expulsion of urine or reflux of semen into the bladder

77

What happens to the reproductive ducts and accessory glands during ejaculation?

-contract, emptying their contents into the urethra

78

What happens to the bulbospongiosus muscles of the penis during ejaculation?

-rapid series of contractions
-propel semen from urethra
-contractions are accompanied by intense pleasure
-muscle contraction, rapid heartbeat, and elevated BP

79

Climax

-orgasm
-entire ejaculatory event

80

Resolution

-a period of muscular and psychological relaxation
-a latent or refractory period (minutes to hours) during which a man is unable to achieve another orgasm
-latent period increases with age

81

Erectile Dysfunction

-the inability to attain an erection
-parasympathetic nerves serving the penis do not release enough NO
-reduce systemic blood pressure

82

Spermatogenesis

-sequence of events in the seminiferous tubules of the testes that produce sperm (spermatozoa)

83

How many chromosomes are contributed by each father?

-23 gametes

84

Sustentocytes

-divide the seminiferous tubules into the basal compartment and the adluminal compartment

85

Basal Compartment

-tight junctions
-contains spermatogonia
-earliest primary spermatocytes

86

Adluminal Compartment

-meiotically active cells and the tubule lumen

87

Blood Testis Barrier

-tight junctions between sustentocytes
-prevents the membrane antigen of sperm from escaping thru the lamina into the bloodstream where they would activate the immune system

88

Thymus and Sperm

-sperm doesn't activate until 14, so the thymus education doesn't exist for them

89

How do the spermatogonia recognize themselves as 'self'?

-outside the barrier and can be influenced by bloodborne chemical messengers that promote spermatogenesis

90

Is the blood pressure different in the male reproductive system?

-yes
-it is 2 times higher than the rest of the circulation

91

Hypothalamic Pituitary Gonadal Axis (HPG)

-regulate the production of gametes and sex hormones
-under CNS control

92

1st of HPG

-hypothalamus release gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)
-this controls the release of the two anterior pituitary gonadotropins (FSH) & (LH)

93

2nd of HPG

-GnRH binds to pituitary cells making them secrete FSH & LH into blood

94

3rd of HPG

-FSH stimulates spermatogenesis by causing the sustentocytes to release androgen binding protein (ABP)
-FSH enhances testosterones stimulatory effects

95

ABP

-keeps testosterone in the vicinity of the spermatogenic cells high, stimulating spermatogenesis

96

4th of HPG

-LH binds to endocrine cells surrounding the seminiferous tubules
-stimulates them to secrete testosterone
-rising testosterone trigger spermatogenesis

97

5th of HPG

-testosterone stimulates maturation of sex organs, development and maintenance of secondary and libido

98

6th of HPG

-rising levels of testosterone inhibit hypothalamus release of GnRH and inhibit gonadotropin release

99

7th of HPG

-inhibin is a barometer for of the normalcy of the spermatogenesis
-when sperm count is high, more inhibin is released, inhibiting FSH and GnRH
-when sperm count falls, inhibit secretion declines

100

GnRH

-indirectly stimulates the testes by its effect on FSH and LH release
-the more GnRH released, the testes secrete more testosterone, but hypothalamic inhibition keeps rising until hormone interaction is achieved
-(mature sperm in the semen)

101

FSH & LH

-directly stimulate testes

102

Testosterone and Inhibin

-exert negative feedback controls on the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary

103

What happens in the absence of GnRH and gonadotropins?

-testes atrophy and sperm and testosterone cease

104

Testosterone

-synthesized from cholesterol and exerts its effects by activating specific genes which enhances synthesis of certain proteins in the target cells
-can be converted to estradiol

105

DHT

-dihydrotestosterone
-converted in the prostate
-converted before it can bind in the nucleus

106

Estradiol

-female sex hormone that brings about its stimulatory effects

107

Male Secondary Sex Characteristics

-nonreproductive organs
-pubic, axillary and facial hair
-skin thickens and becomes oiler
-somatic effects of testosterone (basics of male libido)
-adrenal glands

108

Inguinal Hernia

-testicles can be pulled up back into the wall

109

How can laptops affect sperm?

-put them on top of the scrotum and gets very hot
-guys should use a temperature controller to stop the heat from penetrating the sperm because it can mutate sperm