The Endocrine System

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Endocrinology

IS THE STUDY OF HORMONES

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HORMONES ARE

CHEMICAL MESSENGERS/ THAT'S RELEASED INTO THE BLOOD/CAUSE AFFECT AFTER A PERIOD OF TIME

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HORMONES AFFECT

MOST CELLS OF THE BODY

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HORMONES INFLUENCE

>REGULATE REPRODUCTION-
ESTROGEN/PROGESTERONE/TESTOSTERONE
>ELECTROLYTE, WATER, AND NUTRIENT BALANCE- ALDOSTERONE
>BODY DEFENSES-CORTICOSTEROID/CORTISOL
>GROWTH AND DEVELOPEMNT- GROWTH HORMONE
>CELLULAR METABOLISM AND ENERGY BALANCE- INSULIN GLUCAGON

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ENDOCRINE GLANDS

HAVE NO DUCTS/RELEASE HORMONES THROUGH DIFFUSION/INCLUDE THE PITUITARY, THYROID, PARATHYROID, ADRENAL, AND PINEAL GLANDS

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SOME ORGANS CONTAIN

ENDOCRINE TISSUE

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AUTOCRINE

LOCAL CHEMICAL MESSENGERS; ACT ON THE SAME CELLS THAT SECRETE THEM

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PARACRINE

LOCAL CHEMICAL MESSENGERS; ACT ON NEIGHBORING CELLS

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DEFINITION OF HORMONES

HORMONES ARE LONG-DISTANCE CHEMICAL SIGNALS
MOST HORMONES ARE AMINO ACID BASED, BUT A FEW ARE STEROIDS

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MECHANISMS OF HORMONE ACTION

1. PRODUCE CHANGES IN THE MEMBRANE PERMEABILITY OR POTENTIAL
2. STIMULATE SYNTHESIS OF PROTEINS OR REGULATORY MOLECULES
3. ACTIVATE OR DEACTIVATE ENZYMES
4. TRIGGERS SECRETION
5.STIMULATE MITOSIS

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WATER-SOLUABLE HORMONES

ALMOST ALL ARE AMINO ACID-BASED HORMONES
EXERT THEIR EFFECTS BY BINDING TO A MEMBRANE RECEPTOR WHICH ACTIVATES AN INTRACELULLAR SECOND MESSENGER

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LIPID-SOLUBLE HORMONES

ARE STEROIDS AND THE THYROID HORMONE

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SECOND-MESSENGER SYSTEMS

G PROTEINS

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DIRECT GENE ACTIVATION

OCCURS WHEN A HORMONE BINDS TO AN INTRACELLUAR RECEPTOR
ACTIVATES A SPECIFIC REGION OF DNA
SWITCHES ON PROTEIN SYNTHESIS

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TARGET CELL

CELLS MUST HAVE RECEPTORS FOR HORMONES TO BIND.
RESPONSE DEPENDS ON;
1. BLOOD LEVELS OF THE HORMONE
2. RELATIVE NUMBERS OF TARGET CELL RECEPTORS
3. AFFINITY OF THE RECEPTOR FOR THE HORMONE

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HORMONE ACTIVITY
THE CONCENTRATION OF A HORMONE DEPENDS ON

1.RATE OF RELEASE
2. RATE OF INACTIVATION
3.REMOVAL FROM THE BODY

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THE HALF-LIFE OF A HORMONE

IS THE SHORTEST FOR WATER SOLUBLE HORMONES

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HORMONE RELEASE

1. IS MOST REGULATED THROUGH NEGATIVE FEEDBACK MECHANISMS
2. MAY BE STIMULATED BY HUMORAL, NEURAL, OR HORMONAL FACTORS.
3. NERVOUS SYSTEM REGULATION ALLOWS HORMONE SECRETION TO BE MODIFIED AS A RESULT OF CHANGING BODY NEEDS

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PITUITARY GLAND

SITS IN THE SELLA TURCICA OF THE SKULL AND IS CONNECTED TO THE BRAIN VIA THE INFUNDIBULUM

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THE PITUITARY HAS TWO LOBES

POSTERIOR PITUITARY = NEUROHYPOPHYSIS: NEURAL IN ORIGIN

ANTERIOR PITUITARY = ADENOHYPOPHYSIS: GLANDULAR IN ORIGIN

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INFUNDIBULUM

> HYPOTHALAMO-HYPOPHYSEAL TRACT; NEURAL CONNNECTION BETWEEN HYPOTHALAMUS AND POSTERIOR PITUITARY
> HYPOTHALAMO-HYPOPHYSEAL PORTAL SYSTEM; VASCULAR CONNECTION BETWEEN HYPOTHALAMUS AND ANTERIOR PITUITARY

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ANTERIOR PITUITARY HORMONES

ACTH/ GH / TSH /FSH / LH

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PRO-OPIOMELANOCORTIN(POMC)

SPLITS INTO ACTH, TWO NATURAL OPIATES, AND MELANOCYTE-STIMULATING HORMONE

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GROWTH HORMONE

ACTS ON TARGET CELLS IN THE LIVER, SKELETAL MUSCLE, BONE, AND OTHER TISSUES
CAUSES THE PRODUCTION OF INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTORS (IGFs)

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THYROID-STIMULATING HORMONE(TSH)

ACTS ON THYROID GLAND

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ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC(ACTH)

ACTS ON ADRENAL CORTEX

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GONADOTROPINS FSH (FOLLICLE-STIMULATING HORMONE AND LH (LUTEINIZING HORMONE)

ACTS ON GONADS

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PROLACTIN

ACTS ON BREAST

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POSTERIOR PITUITARY HORMONES

1. OXYTOCIN
2. ANTIDIURETIC HORMONE (ADH)

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OXYTOCIN

ACTS ON UTEROUS AND BREAST

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ANTIDIURETIC HORMONE (ADH)=VASOPRESSIN(AVP)

ACTS ON KIDNEYS AND BLOOD VESSELS

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THYROID GLAND

CONSISTS OF FOLLICE CELLS THAT PRODUCE THYROGLOBULIN, AND PARAFOLLICULAR CELLS THAT PRODUCE CALCITONIN

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THYROID HORMONE CONSISTS OF

THYROXINE (T4) AND TRIIODOTHYRONINE (T3) THAT INCREASE BASAL METABOLIC RATE AND BODY HEAT PRODUCTION

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CALCITONIN

LOWERS BLOOD CALCIUM BY STIMULATING Ca+2 UPTAKE INTO THE BONE MATRIX

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PARATHYROID GLAND

SECRETE PARATHYROID HORMONE: INCREASES CALCIUM LEVELS IN BLOOD

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ADRENAL GLANDS

SITS ON TOP OF KIDNEYS

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3 REGIONS OF THE ADRENAL CORTEX

1. ZONA GLOMERULOSA
2. ZONA FASCICULATA
3. ZONA RETICULARIS

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MINERALOCORTICOIDS (ALDOSTERONE)

REGULATES ELECTROLYTE CONCENTRATIONS OF BLOOD

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GLUCOCORICOIDS (CORTICOSTEROID)

RESPOND TO STRESS

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GONADOCORTICOIDS (ANDROGENS)

CONVERTED TO TESTOSTERONE AND ESTROGEN'S IN THE TISSUE CELLS

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THE ADRENAL MEDULLA SYNTHESIZE

EPINEPHRINE AND NOREPINEPHRINE

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PINEAL GLAND

1. PRODUCES MELATONIN
2. INDIRECTLY RECEIVES INPUT FROM THE VISUAL PATHWAYS IN ORDER TO DETERMINE THE TIMING OF DAY AND NIGHT

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PANCREAS

IS A MIXED GLAND THAT CONTAINS BOTH ENDOCRINE AND EXOCRINE GLAND CELLS

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GLUCAGON

TARGETS THE LIVER WHERE IT PROMOTES GLYCOGENOLYSIS, GLUCOGENESIS, AND RELEASE OF GLUCOSE TO THE BLOOD

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INSULIN

LOWERS BLOOD SUGAR LEVELS BY ENHANCING MEMBRANE TRANSPORT OF GLUCOSE INTO BODY CELLS

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THE GONADS AND PLACENTA

1. THE OVARIES PRODUCE ESTROGEN'S AND PROGESTERONE
2. THE TESTES PRODUCE TESTOSTERONE
3. THE PLACENTA SECRETES ESTROGEN'S, PROGESTERONE, AND HUMAN CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, WHICH ACT ON THE UTERUS TO INFLUENCE PREGNANCY