Development and Cancer HW BIO 340

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1

All EXCEPT which of the following would be considered a good model of genetic organisms for studying development?

Arabidopsis
humans
Drosophila
C. elegans

b. humans

Humans are not good model organisms for many reasons, such as the ethical issues surrounding experimentation.

2

What are maternal-effect genes?

genes inherited from the mother
genes transcribed in the mother that regulate expression of genes in the offspring
genes transcribed in the offspring that regulate expression of genes in the mother
genes transcribed in the mother that negate the genes of the father

genes transcribed in the mother that regulate expression of genes in the offspring

The products of maternal-effect genes are deposited in the egg and regulate the expression of zygotic genes.

3

Immediately after fertilization of a Drosophila egg, the zygote nucleus undergoes a series of divisions. Subsequent nuclear migration generates a(n) ________.

zygote
syncytial blastoderm
cleavage nucleus
maternal effect
homeodomain

syncytial blastoderm

4

What are the three subsets of segmentation genes that divide the embryo into segments along the anterior-posterior axis?
gap, pair-rule, and segment polarity
anterior, posterior, and terminal
even-skipped, fushi tarazu, and hairy
bithorax, ultrabithorax, and antennapedia

gap, pair-rule, and segment polarity

Segmentation genes divide the embryo into a series of segments.

5

In Drosophila, the sequential order of the function of segmentation genes is ________.
pair-rule, transdeterminal, gap
transdeterminal, gap, pair-rule
gap, pair-rule, segment-polarity
segmentational, helical, spherical
gap, segment-polarity, pair-rule

gap, pair-rule, segment-polarity

6

Cancer is best described as a ________.
viral disease
genetic disorder at the cellular level
genetic disease at the gametic cell level
bacterial disease at the somatic cell level

genetic disorder at the cellular level

Correct
The location of genetic mutations and how they occur vary greatly. However, all cancers result from a genetic disorder at the cellular level.

7

Driver mutations provide a growth advantage to a tumor cell. Which type of mutation is known to accumulate in cancer cells but has no direct contribution to the cancer phenotype?

alteration mutations
insignificant mutations
passenger mutations
indirect mutations
carrier mutations

passenger mutations

8

Which of the following three general mechanisms appear to be involved in the conversion of proto-oncogenes to oncogenes?

familial, sporadic, phosphorylation
transdetermination, mutation, allosteric interactions
suppression, tabulation, projection
point mutations, translocations, overexpression
inversions, translocations, methylation

point mutations, translocations, overexpression

9

The gene p53 is called the "guardian of the genome" because it corrects mutations in the spindle apparatus before nondisjunction can occur.

True
False

false

10

In Drosophila, maternal-effect genes are influential in determining the anterior-posterior organization of the developing embryo.
True
False

True

11

Segmentation genes, such as the pair-rule class, are inherited through mitochondrial DNA in Drosophila.
True
False

False

12

Which of the following statements describes metastasis?

The ability to form secondary tumors at another site
Loss of contact inhibition
It is the ability to divide uncontrollably.
A class of genes that initiate apoptosis

The ability to form secondary tumors at another site

13

What is the relationship between proto-oncogenes and oncogenes?
Oncogenes are mutant forms of proto-oncogenes.
Both must be activated to halt cell division.
Both are involved in arresting the cell cycle.
Oncogenes are versions of proto-oncogenes that have been permanently switched off.

Oncogenes are mutant forms of proto-oncogenes.

Proto-oncogenes are normal cellular genes. Mutations can cause these to be permanently switched on, leading to uncontrolled cell division and cancer.

14

What is the role of the p53 protein in the cell cycle in normal cells?

It temporarily arrests the cell cycle in G1 before entering S.
It causes cells to enter G0 and stop dividing.
It prevents cells from exiting the cell cycle and undergoing apoptosis.
It binds to cyclin-dependent kinases to selectively phosphorylate certain proteins.

It temporarily arrests the cell cycle in G1 before entering S.

The p53 protein apparently arrests the cell cycle until any DNA damage has been repaired.

15

A tumor-suppressor gene normally functions to suppress cell division.
True
False

True

16

When the normal retinoblastoma protein is dephosphorylated, it acts to suppress cell division by binding to and inactivating the E2F transcription factor.
True
False

True