chapter 25:urinary system Flashcards
What ensures long term acid bases
What are important molecules for regulating red blood cells production and blood pressure
Erythropoietin a d renin
What convert vitamin D to its active form
What are The paired tubes that transport the urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder?
What is a temporary storage reservoir for urine?
What is a tube that carries urine from the bladder to the body exterior
Where does the kidneys receive some protection from?
The lower part of the rib
What are the three layers of supportive tissue surround each kidneys from superficial to deep?
Renal fascia, perirenal Fat capsule, and fibrous capusle
What is the outer layer of dense fibrous connective tissue that anchors the kidneys and the adrenal gland to the surroundings structures?
What is a fatty mass that surrounds the kidneys and cushions it against blows?
What is renal ptosis, and what causes it?
It is when one or both kidneys may drop to a lower position and this occurs when the amont of the fatty case tissue fat starts to dwindles
What may cause a urter to become kinked, causing urine to back up and exert pressure on kidneys tissue.?
What is the backup of urine from ureteral obstruction or other causes called?
What can severely damage the kidney, leading to necrosis and renal failure?
What collects urine, which drains continously from the papillae, and empty it into the renal pelvis?
Major and minor calyces
What is an infection of the renal pelvis and calyces?
What is the infections or inflammations that affect the entire kidney?
Under normal resting conditions, the large_____deliver one-fourth of the total cardiac to the kidneys each minute
Why is the right renal artery longer thsn the left renal artery?
Because the aorta lies to the left of the midline
More than 90% of the blood entering the kidneys perfuses the_____
What branching from the cortical radiate arteries begin a complex arrangement of microscopic blood vessels. These vessels are key elements of kidney function?
Blood leaving the renal cortex drains sequentially into the?
Cortical radiate, arcuate,interlobar
What exits the kidneys and empty into the inferior vdna cava?
What is a variable network of autonomic nerve fibers and ganglia, provides the nerve supply of the kidney and its urter?
What is the renal plexus is largely supplied by?
Sympathetic fibers from the most inferior thoracic and first lumbar Splanchnic nerves
What regulate renal blood flow by adjusting the diameter of renal arterioles and also influence the fofmation of urine by the nephron?
Sympathetic vasomotor fibers
What are the structural and functional units of the kidneys
What tiny blood processing units, that carry out the processes that form urine?
What does the renal corpulscle consists of?
Glomerulus and glomerular capsule
The endothelium of the_____capillaries is fenestrated which makes these capillaries exceptionally porous.
The plasma derived fluid____is raw material that the renal tubules process to form urine
What type of layers does the glomerular have?
Parietal and visceral layer
What is a simple squamous epithelium its contributes to the capsule structure but plays no part in forming filtrate?
The visceral layer consists of highly modified branching epithelial cells called?
Where does the podocytes terminates?
The clefs or opening between the foot processes are called?
Where does the filtrate slits enters?
The capsular space inside the glomerular capsule
What filter lies between the blood in the Glomerulus and filtrate in the capsular space?
What are thinner and almost entirely lack microvilli?
Distal convoluted tubule(DCT,
What are the two cells the collecting ducts contain?
Principal and Intercalated cells
What are the most numerous cells that have sparse short microvilli and are responsible for maintaining the body's water and Na balance?
What are cubiodal cells with abundant microvilli?
What are the two types of Intercalated cells and what are they role?
Type A and B thay plays a role in maintaining the acid base balance of blood
What happens when the collecting ducts approach the renal pelvis?
They fuse together and deliver urine into the minor calyces via papillae of the pyramid
What are the two majors groups of nephrons?
Cortical and Juxtamedullary nephrons
What accounts for 85% of the nephrons in the kidneys?
What plays an important role in the kidneys ability to produce urine?
The____in which the capillaries run in parallel, is specialized for filtration
Filtration producds a large amount of fluid, most 99% of which is reabsorbed by the____and returned to the blood in the____
Renal tubule cells and peritubular capillary bed
Where does the afferent arterioles arise from?
Cortical radiate arteries that run through the renal cortex
Where does the Efferent arterioles feed into?
Either the peritubular capillary bed
What only experience low pressure?
What does Juxtamedullary nephrons form?
What plays an important role in forming concentrated urine?
What are three population cells of the JGC(Juxtamedullary complex)that helps regulate the rate of filtrate formation and systematic blood pressure?
Macula densa, granular cells, and Extraglomerular mesangial cellz
What cells are chemoreceptors that monitor the NaCl contents of filtrate entering the distal convoluted tubule?
What cells act as mechanoreceptors that sense the blood pressure in the afferent arterioles?
What cells may pass regulatory signals between macula densa and granular cells?
Extraglomerular mesangial cells
What are the three processes involved in urine formation and the adjustments of blood composition?
Glomerular filtration, tubular reabsorption, and tubular secretion
What is known as the dumping into the waste container?
What takes place in the renal corpulscle and produces a cell and protein free filtrate?
What is referred to the reclaiming what the body needs to keep?
What is a process of selectively moving substances from the filtrate back into the blood?
Where does tubular reabsorption takes place?
In the renal tubules and collecting ducts
What is referred to selectively adding to the waste container?
What is a process of selectively moving substances from the blood into the filtrate?
What consume 20-25% of all oxygen used by the body at rest?
What contains everything found in the plasma except protein?
What contains unneeded substances such as excess salts and metabolic wastsx?
What is a passive process in which hydrostatic pressure forces fluids and solutes through a membrane?
What is a porus membrane that allows free passage of sater and solutes smaller than plasma proteins?
What allows all blood components except blood cells to pass through?
Fenestrated endothelium of the glomerular capillaries
What are macromolecules that get hung up in the filtration membrane?
They are engulfed by specialized pericytes called glomerular mesangial cells
The presence of proteins or blood cells in the urine usually indicates problems with what?
The filtration membrane
What promotes filtrate formation?
What is the chief force of pushing water and solutes out of the blood and across the filtration membrane
Hydrostatic pressure in glomerular capillaries
Why is the blo lo d pressure in the Glomerulus is extremely high and remains high across the entire capillary bed?
Because the Glomerulus capillaries are drained by a high resistance Efferent arteriole whose diameter is smaller than the afferent arterioles that feed them.
What pressure is essentially zero because virtually no proteins enter the capsule?
Collid osmotic pressure in the capsular space
What inhibits filtrate formation by opposing hydrostatic pressure?
Two inward pressure
What is the pressure exerted by filtrate in the glomerular capsule?
Hydrostatic pressure in the capsular space
What is much higher than hydrostatic pressure surrounding most capillaries because filtrate is confinedin a small space with a narrow outlet?
Hydrostatic pressure in the capsular 6
What is the pressure exerted by the proteins in the blood?
Colloid osmotic pressure in glomerular capillaries
What largely determines the glomerular r
Net filtration pressure
What is the volume of filtrate formed each minutes by the combined activity of all 2 million glomruli of the kidney?
Glomerular filtration rate
What is the makn controlled favtor?
Net filtration pressure
What is the most important pressures determing the net filtration pressure?
Hydrostatic pressure in the Glomerulus
What happens when the glomerular filtration rate increases?
Urine output increases, which reduces blood volume and blood pressure
What acts locally within the kidneys yo maintain GFR?
What controls by the nervous and endocrine systems maintain blood pressure?
When does the extrinsic controls takes over the intrinsic controls and why?
When extreme changes in blood pressure is less or greater than 80.it tries to prevent damage t lo the brain and other crucial organs
GFR can be controlled by changing asingle variable. What is this variable?
Glomerular hydrostatic pressure
What happens the glomerular hydrostatic pressure rises?
NFP rises and so does GFR
What happens when the glomerular pressure falls as little as 18%
The GFR drops to zero
By adjusting its own resistace to blood flow, a process called____
What happens in autoregulation?
The kidney can maintaina nearly constant GFR despite fluctuations in systematic arterial blood pressure
What are two mechanism autoregulation uses?
Myogenic mechanism and tubuloglomerular feedback mechanism