chapter 25:urinary system Flashcards


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1

What ensures long term acid bases

Kidney

2

What are important molecules for regulating red blood cells production and blood pressure

Erythropoietin a d renin

3

What convert vitamin D to its active form

Kidneys

4

What are The paired tubes that transport the urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder?

Ureters

5

What is a temporary storage reservoir for urine?

Urinary bladder

6

What is a tube that carries urine from the bladder to the body exterior

Urethra

7

Where does the kidneys receive some protection from?

The lower part of the rib

8

What are the three layers of supportive tissue surround each kidneys from superficial to deep?

Renal fascia, perirenal Fat capsule, and fibrous capusle

9

What is the outer layer of dense fibrous connective tissue that anchors the kidneys and the adrenal gland to the surroundings structures?

Renal fascia

10

What is a fatty mass that surrounds the kidneys and cushions it against blows?

Fibrous capsule

11

What is renal ptosis, and what causes it?

It is when one or both kidneys may drop to a lower position and this occurs when the amont of the fatty case tissue fat starts to dwindles

12

What may cause a urter to become kinked, causing urine to back up and exert pressure on kidneys tissue.?

Renal ptosis

13

What is the backup of urine from ureteral obstruction or other causes called?

Hydronephrosis

14

What can severely damage the kidney, leading to necrosis and renal failure?

Hydronephrosis

15

What collects urine, which drains continously from the papillae, and empty it into the renal pelvis?

Major and minor calyces

16

What is an infection of the renal pelvis and calyces?

Pyelitis

17

What is the infections or inflammations that affect the entire kidney?

Pyelonephritis

18

Under normal resting conditions, the large_____deliver one-fourth of the total cardiac to the kidneys each minute

Renal arteries

19

Why is the right renal artery longer thsn the left renal artery?

Because the aorta lies to the left of the midline

20

More than 90% of the blood entering the kidneys perfuses the_____

Renal cortex

21

What branching from the cortical radiate arteries begin a complex arrangement of microscopic blood vessels. These vessels are key elements of kidney function?

Afferent arterioles

22

Blood leaving the renal cortex drains sequentially into the?

Cortical radiate, arcuate,interlobar

23

What exits the kidneys and empty into the inferior vdna cava?

Renal veins

24

What is a variable network of autonomic nerve fibers and ganglia, provides the nerve supply of the kidney and its urter?

Renal plexus

25

What is the renal plexus is largely supplied by?

Sympathetic fibers from the most inferior thoracic and first lumbar Splanchnic nerves

26

What regulate renal blood flow by adjusting the diameter of renal arterioles and also influence the fofmation of urine by the nephron?

Sympathetic vasomotor fibers

27

What are the structural and functional units of the kidneys

Nephrons

28

What tiny blood processing units, that carry out the processes that form urine?

Nephrons

29

What does the renal corpulscle consists of?

Glomerulus and glomerular capsule

30

The endothelium of the_____capillaries is fenestrated which makes these capillaries exceptionally porous.

Glomerulus

31

The plasma derived fluid____is raw material that the renal tubules process to form urine

Filtrate

32

What type of layers does the glomerular have?

Parietal and visceral layer

33

What is a simple squamous epithelium its contributes to the capsule structure but plays no part in forming filtrate?

Parietal

34

The visceral layer consists of highly modified branching epithelial cells called?

Podocytes

35

Where does the podocytes terminates?

Foot processes

36

The clefs or opening between the foot processes are called?

Filtration slits

37

Where does the filtrate slits enters?

The capsular space inside the glomerular capsule

38

What filter lies between the blood in the Glomerulus and filtrate in the capsular space?

Filtration membrane

39

What are thinner and almost entirely lack microvilli?

Distal convoluted tubule(DCT,

40

What are the two cells the collecting ducts contain?

Principal and Intercalated cells

41

What are the most numerous cells that have sparse short microvilli and are responsible for maintaining the body's water and Na balance?

Principal cells

42

What are cubiodal cells with abundant microvilli?

Intercalated cells

43

What are the two types of Intercalated cells and what are they role?

Type A and B thay plays a role in maintaining the acid base balance of blood

44

What happens when the collecting ducts approach the renal pelvis?

They fuse together and deliver urine into the minor calyces via papillae of the pyramid

45

What are the two majors groups of nephrons?

Cortical and Juxtamedullary nephrons

46

What accounts for 85% of the nephrons in the kidneys?

Cortical nephrons

47

What plays an important role in the kidneys ability to produce urine?

Juxtamedullary nephrons

48

The____in which the capillaries run in parallel, is specialized for filtration

Glomerulus

49

Filtration producds a large amount of fluid, most 99% of which is reabsorbed by the____and returned to the blood in the____

Renal tubule cells and peritubular capillary bed

50

Where does the afferent arterioles arise from?

Cortical radiate arteries that run through the renal cortex

51

Where does the Efferent arterioles feed into?

Either the peritubular capillary bed

52

What only experience low pressure?

Peritubular capillaries

53

What does Juxtamedullary nephrons form?

Vasa recta

54

What plays an important role in forming concentrated urine?

Vasa recta

55

What are three population cells of the JGC(Juxtamedullary complex)that helps regulate the rate of filtrate formation and systematic blood pressure?

Macula densa, granular cells, and Extraglomerular mesangial cellz

56

What cells are chemoreceptors that monitor the NaCl contents of filtrate entering the distal convoluted tubule?

Macula desa

57

What cells act as mechanoreceptors that sense the blood pressure in the afferent arterioles?

Granular cells

58

What cells may pass regulatory signals between macula densa and granular cells?

Extraglomerular mesangial cells

59

What are the three processes involved in urine formation and the adjustments of blood composition?

Glomerular filtration, tubular reabsorption, and tubular secretion

60

What is known as the dumping into the waste container?

Glomerular filtration

61

What takes place in the renal corpulscle and produces a cell and protein free filtrate?

Glomerular filtration

62

What is referred to the reclaiming what the body needs to keep?

Tubular reabsorption

63

What is a process of selectively moving substances from the filtrate back into the blood?

Tubular reabsorption

64

Where does tubular reabsorption takes place?

In the renal tubules and collecting ducts

65

What is referred to selectively adding to the waste container?

Tubular secretion

66

What is a process of selectively moving substances from the blood into the filtrate?

Tubular secretion

67

What consume 20-25% of all oxygen used by the body at rest?

The kidneys

68

What contains everything found in the plasma except protein?

Filtrate

69

What contains unneeded substances such as excess salts and metabolic wastsx?

Urine

70

What is a passive process in which hydrostatic pressure forces fluids and solutes through a membrane?

Glomerular filtration

71

What is a porus membrane that allows free passage of sater and solutes smaller than plasma proteins?

Filtration membrane

72

What allows all blood components except blood cells to pass through?

Fenestrated endothelium of the glomerular capillaries

73

What are macromolecules that get hung up in the filtration membrane?

They are engulfed by specialized pericytes called glomerular mesangial cells

74

The presence of proteins or blood cells in the urine usually indicates problems with what?

The filtration membrane

75

What promotes filtrate formation?

Outward pressure

76

What is the chief force of pushing water and solutes out of the blood and across the filtration membrane

Hydrostatic pressure in glomerular capillaries

77

Why is the blo lo d pressure in the Glomerulus is extremely high and remains high across the entire capillary bed?

Because the Glomerulus capillaries are drained by a high resistance Efferent arteriole whose diameter is smaller than the afferent arterioles that feed them.

78

What pressure is essentially zero because virtually no proteins enter the capsule?

Collid osmotic pressure in the capsular space

79

What inhibits filtrate formation by opposing hydrostatic pressure?

Two inward pressure

80

What is the pressure exerted by filtrate in the glomerular capsule?

Hydrostatic pressure in the capsular space

81

What is much higher than hydrostatic pressure surrounding most capillaries because filtrate is confinedin a small space with a narrow outlet?

Hydrostatic pressure in the capsular 6

82

What is the pressure exerted by the proteins in the blood?

Colloid osmotic pressure in glomerular capillaries

83

What largely determines the glomerular r
filtration rate?

Net filtration pressure

84

What is the volume of filtrate formed each minutes by the combined activity of all 2 million glomruli of the kidney?

Glomerular filtration rate

85

What is the makn controlled favtor?

Net filtration pressure

86

What is the most important pressures determing the net filtration pressure?

Hydrostatic pressure in the Glomerulus

87

What happens when the glomerular filtration rate increases?

Urine output increases, which reduces blood volume and blood pressure

88

What acts locally within the kidneys yo maintain GFR?

Intrinsic controls

89

What controls by the nervous and endocrine systems maintain blood pressure?

Extrinsic controls

90

When does the extrinsic controls takes over the intrinsic controls and why?

When extreme changes in blood pressure is less or greater than 80.it tries to prevent damage t lo the brain and other crucial organs

91

GFR can be controlled by changing asingle variable. What is this variable?

Glomerular hydrostatic pressure

92

What happens the glomerular hydrostatic pressure rises?

NFP rises and so does GFR

93

What happens when the glomerular pressure falls as little as 18%

The GFR drops to zero

94

By adjusting its own resistace to blood flow, a process called____

Renal autoregulation

95

What happens in autoregulation?

The kidney can maintaina nearly constant GFR despite fluctuations in systematic arterial blood pressure

96

What are two mechanism autoregulation uses?

Myogenic mechanism and tubuloglomerular feedback mechanism