CH.24 and 25 urinary and fluids

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1

Gland atop of each kidney

Adrenal Gland

2

The structural and functional units of the kidneys are?

Nephrons

3

Each nephron consists of ______ and ________

renal corpuscles and renal tubule

4

Another name for cortical radiate artery is?

interlobular artery

5

Thick or thin?
1. Descending loop of Henle is?
2. Ascending loop of Henle is?

1. thin
2. thick

6

The two types of nephrons are?

1. Cortical Nephrons
2. Juxtamedullary Nephrons

7

Cortical nephrons are responsible for_____ and represent ____% of the nephrons in the kidneys

diluted urine, 85%

8

Juxtamedullary nephrons are responsible for _______ and represent 15% of nephrons.

concentrated urine, 15%

9

Granular cells detect?

blood pressure

10

Macula Densa cells detect?

sodium chlorine concentration

11

Renin affects?

blood pressure

12

Three steps of urine formation are?

1. Filtration- through glomerulus
2. Reabsoption- water,glucose,sodium. out of tubules back to blood.
3. Secretion- out of blood, back to tubules. mix with water and other waste to make urine.

13

Approximately how much blood passes through the glomeruli each minute? How much is plasma

1. about 1200ml
2. 650ml is plasma

14

Formula for Net Filtration Pressure is?

NFP= GBHP-[CHP+BCOP]= 10mm Hg

15

We must maintain ________mm Hg in net filtration.

55 mm Hg

16

HPg is opposed by what two forces that inhinit fluid loss from glomerular capillaries?

1. Colloid Osmotic Pressure of glomerular blood (OPg)
2. Capsular hydrostatic pressure (HPc)

17

What is a major factor forcing fluids and solutes out of the blood?

The glomerular hydrostatic(blood) pressure (HPg)

18

The volume of filtrate formed each minute by the combined activity of all 2 million glomeruli in the kidney is?

Glomerular filtration rate (GFR)

19

Two controls that regulate glomerular filtration rate are?

intrinsic and extrinsic controls

20

Intrinsic controls act locally within the kidneys to maintain?

Glomerular filtration rate

21

The extrinsic controls are managed by what two systems? What do extrinsic controls maintain?

1. nervous and endocrine systems
2. maintainblood pressure

22

INTRINSIC CONTROLS= Make long ter changes
EXTRINSIC CONTROLS= Monitor

...

23

Antidiuretic hormones make you pee more or less?

Less

24

What do Antidiuretic hormones do?

Stimulate excretion of highly concentrated urine and enhances urea transport in the medullart collecting ducts. Also absorbs water and inserts aquaporins on membranes.

25

Anytime water is reabsorbed, it is reabsorbed by?

Osmosis

26

Sodium, Potassium, ect is transported by?

Active transport mechanism/pump

27

What is Aldosterone?

A hormone secreted to increase reabsorption of ions & water, causes urine to be more concentrated.

28

Aldosterone "fine-tunes" the reabsorption of remaining ___________.

Sodium

29

Aldosterone indirectly affects?

potassium secretions and chlorine absorption.

30

Aldosterone directly affects?

sodium absorption

31

What triggers the relesase of Aldosterone?

Renin-Angiotensin

32

Angiotensin is mediated by?

JG Cells

33

ADH secreted= __________
NO ADH secreted= _____________?

1. concentrated urine
2. diluted urine

34

100% of ___________ is reabsorpted

glucose

35

The kidneys keep the solute load of all body fluids constant at about?

300mOsm

36

minimum urine formation is?

50ml

37

Descending loop of Henle is permeable to?

Water

38

Ascending loop of Henle is permeable to? impermeable to?

permeable to sodium pump
impermeable to water

39

Chemicals that enhance urinary output are?

Diuretics

40

The volume of plasma that is cleared of a particular substance in a given time, usually one min.

Renal Clearance

41

Renal clearance rate equation is:

RC= UV/P

U=concentration of the substance urine
P= concentration of the substnace in plasma

42

Cratinine has a RC of?

140 ml/min

43

when filtrate formation decreases or stops completely it is called?

Renal failure

44

use of an "artifical kidney" apparatus, passing the patients's blood through a membrane tubing that is permeable only to selected substances.

Hemodialysis

45

Yellow color in urine is due to?

urochrome

46

Urine is slightly acidic around _____pH

6 pH

47

The ratio of the mass of a substnace to the mass of an equal volume of distilled water is?

specific gavity

48

The specific gravity of urine ranges from?

1.001 to 1.035

49

Water accounts for ____% of urine volume

95%

50

The largest component of urine by weight apart from water is_______?

Urea

51

Nitrogenous wastes in urine includes_____ & ________

Uric acid and creatinine

52

The smooth, triangular region of the bladder base outlined by three openings is the?

Trigone

53

Maximum capacity of the bladder is?

800-1000ml

54

The act of emptying the urinary bladder is called?

Micturition

55

Water occupies two main fluid compartments:

1. intracellular fluid (ICF) ACCOUNTS FOR 65%
2. Extracellular fluid (ECF) ACCOUNTS FOR 35%

56

extracellular fluid compartments is divided into subcompartments:

1. Plasma
2. Interstitial fluid

57

The fluid portion of the blood is?

Plasma

58

______ is in the microscopic spaces between tissue cells.

interstitial fluid

59

Water serves as a universal_________?

solvent

60

Equation for computing ions in solution:

mEq/L= ion concentraion(mg/L) X #of electrical charges on one ion

61

Extracellular fluid
chief cation= __________
major anion= ___________

chief cation= sodium
major anion= chloride

62

Water intake is typically about?

2500 ml a day in adults

63

Water output occurs by several routes:

1. Vaporizes out of lungs in expired air
2. Diffuses directly through skin, insensible water loss
3. Perspiration
4. Feces

64

______% of water output is excreted by the kidneys in urine

60%

65

Driving force for water intake is?

Thirst mechanism

66

Some factors that trigger ADH relsease by reducing blood volume include:

-prolonged fever
-excessive sweating
-vomiting
-diarreha
-blood loss
-traumatic burns

67

Under certain conditions, ADH also acts to constrict arterioles which directly increases blood pressure or__________.

Vasopressin

68

One of the most important renal functions is regulating the balance between?

sodium imput and out

69

What is Hypernatremia?
Possible Causes?
Consequences?

1. Hypernatremia is elevated sodium in the blood
2. Possible cause: could be because of dehydration
3. Concequence:Nervous system impact, thirst, dehydration leads to confusion and lethargy progressing to coma.

70

What is Hyponatremia?
Possible causes?
Consequesnce?

1.Hyponatremia is when sodium ion concentrate is plasma is below normal.
2.Possible Cause: solute loss or water retention
3. Consequences: Impacts nervous system, neurologic disfunction

71

What is Hyperkalemia?
Possible cause?
Consequence?

1. Hyperkalemia is when blood potassium level is to high
2. Possible cause: renal failure, deficit of aldosterone
3. Consequences: Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, Bradycardia, cardiac arrhythmias.

72

What is Hypokalemia?
Possible cause?
Consequence?

1. Hypokalemia is when blood potassium level is to low.
2. Possible Causes: GI tract disturbances, starvation, diuretic therapy.
3. Consequences: Cardiac arrhythmias, muscle weakness

73

What is Hyperchloremia?
Possible causes?
Consequences?

1. Hyperchloremia is when chlorine levels in the blood are to high
2. Possible causes: dehydration
3. Consequences: no direct clinical symptoms

74

What is Hypochloremia?
Possible causes?
Consequences?

1. Hypochloremia is when chlorine levels in the blood are to low.
2. Possible causes: Metabolic alkalosis(due to vomiting or ingesting to much alkaline substances)or aldosterone deficiency
3.Consequences: no direct clinical symptoms

75

What is Hypercalcemia?
Possible causes?
Consequences?

1. Hypercalcemia is when calcium level in the blood is to high.
2. Possible causes: hyperparathyroidism, excessive vit.D, prolonged mobility
3.Consequences: decreased neuromuscular excitability, cardiac arrhythmias, and arrest

76

What is Hypocalcemia?
Possible causes?
Consequences?

1. Hypocalcemia is when calcium level in the blood is to low
2. Possible cause: burns, vit. D deficiency, renal rubular disease, renal failure.
3.Consequences: tingling of fingers, tremors, skeletal muscle cramps, tetany, convulsions, depressed excitablility of heart, osteomalacia, and fractures

77

What has the most to say about renal regulation of sodium ions concentrarion in the ECF?

Aldosterone

78

what is not absorbed at all?

Creatine

79

Mechanism that regulates glomerular filtration rate is?

Myogenic and Glomerular Apparatus

80

If your pancreas is having a tough time making glucose/insulin and exceeded T Max you have?

Diabetes Melatis

81

Water absortption that depends on presence of hormone ADH is called?

Faculatative absorption

82

At any time, when sodium is absorbed, water follows. This is called?

Obligatory water reabsorption

83

________ requires carriers to transport substances that do not fit across membranes.

Facilitated transport

84

T Max means?

Transport Maximum- all carriers are loaded

85

Parathyroid hormone acts primarily at the? It increases the reabsorption of?

distal convoluted tube
calcium

86

Intracellular fluid
Main cation=
Major anion=

Main cation= potassium
Major anion= phosphate

87

Urination urge generally comes every?

200-300ml

88

Maximum bladder capcity is?

800-1000ml

89

Water makes up ___% of urine

95%
Other soutes in urine:
-Urea (2nd)
-Uric acid (3rd)
-Creatinine (4th)

90

Urochrome results from?

Hemoglobin

91

Urea has a RC of___?

70ml/min
WHICH MEANS IT IS FILTERED BUT SOME IS ABSORBED

92

Creatinine has a RC of ___?

140ml/min
WHICH MEANS IT IS FILTERED BUT SECRETE IT

93

RC for insulin is___?

125ml/min

94

Principle abnormalities of water balance are:

dehydration, hypotonic, edema

95

The first part of water that is absorbed is_______.
The second part is________.

Obligatory water
Facultative water

96

Difference between ADH and Aldosterone is?

ADH-> makes you absorb water
A;dosterone-> makes you reabsorb sodium

97

Partial Pressure of Plasma in CO2 is____?

35-45 mm Hg

98

Absolute blood pH limits for life are____.

low 7.0 & high 7.8

99

Bicarbonate inbalances are regulated by?

Kidneys in extracellular fluid

100

phosphate is the buffer in ____?

urine and intracellular fluid

101

Difference between an acid and a base is?

Acid-> proton donor
Base-> proton acceptor

102

The most important buffer system in extracellular fluid is?

Bicarbonate buffer system

103

A system of one or more compounds that acts to resists changes in pH when a strong acid or base is added.

Chemical buffer

104

3 major chemical buffer systems are?

1. bicarbonate
2. phosphate
3. protein buffer

105

3 ways to determine pH in order from fastest to slowest.

1. Chemical Balance- fastest however least powerful
2. Respiratory- slower but more powerful than chemical
3. Renal- fastest but las longest lasting effect

106

normal pH range is?

7.35-7.45

107

2 things that regulate calcium.

1. parathyroid hormones
2. calcitonin

108

Baroreceptors are located in?

Carotid arteries and Aorta

109

If pH of arterial blood rises above 7.45 a person is said to have?

alkalosis/alkalemia

110

If pH of arterial blood drops belown 7.35 a person is said to have?

acidosis/acidemia