CH.24 and 25 urinary and fluids
Gland atop of each kidney
The structural and functional units of the kidneys are?
Each nephron consists of ______ and ________
renal corpuscles and renal tubule
Another name for cortical radiate artery is?
Thick or thin?
1. Descending loop of Henle is?
2. Ascending loop of Henle is?
The two types of nephrons are?
1. Cortical Nephrons
2. Juxtamedullary Nephrons
Cortical nephrons are responsible for_____ and represent ____% of the nephrons in the kidneys
diluted urine, 85%
Juxtamedullary nephrons are responsible for _______ and represent 15% of nephrons.
concentrated urine, 15%
Granular cells detect?
Macula Densa cells detect?
sodium chlorine concentration
Three steps of urine formation are?
1. Filtration- through glomerulus
2. Reabsoption- water,glucose,sodium. out of tubules back to blood.
3. Secretion- out of blood, back to tubules. mix with water and other waste to make urine.
Approximately how much blood passes through the glomeruli each minute? How much is plasma
1. about 1200ml
2. 650ml is plasma
Formula for Net Filtration Pressure is?
NFP= GBHP-[CHP+BCOP]= 10mm Hg
We must maintain ________mm Hg in net filtration.
55 mm Hg
HPg is opposed by what two forces that inhinit fluid loss from glomerular capillaries?
1. Colloid Osmotic Pressure of glomerular blood (OPg)
2. Capsular hydrostatic pressure (HPc)
What is a major factor forcing fluids and solutes out of the blood?
The glomerular hydrostatic(blood) pressure (HPg)
The volume of filtrate formed each minute by the combined activity of all 2 million glomeruli in the kidney is?
Glomerular filtration rate (GFR)
Two controls that regulate glomerular filtration rate are?
intrinsic and extrinsic controls
Intrinsic controls act locally within the kidneys to maintain?
Glomerular filtration rate
The extrinsic controls are managed by what two systems? What do extrinsic controls maintain?
1. nervous and endocrine systems
2. maintainblood pressure
INTRINSIC CONTROLS= Make long ter changes
EXTRINSIC CONTROLS= Monitor
Antidiuretic hormones make you pee more or less?
What do Antidiuretic hormones do?
Stimulate excretion of highly concentrated urine and enhances urea transport in the medullart collecting ducts. Also absorbs water and inserts aquaporins on membranes.
Anytime water is reabsorbed, it is reabsorbed by?
Sodium, Potassium, ect is transported by?
Active transport mechanism/pump
What is Aldosterone?
A hormone secreted to increase reabsorption of ions & water, causes urine to be more concentrated.
Aldosterone "fine-tunes" the reabsorption of remaining ___________.
Aldosterone indirectly affects?
potassium secretions and chlorine absorption.
Aldosterone directly affects?
What triggers the relesase of Aldosterone?
Angiotensin is mediated by?
ADH secreted= __________
NO ADH secreted= _____________?
1. concentrated urine
2. diluted urine
100% of ___________ is reabsorpted
The kidneys keep the solute load of all body fluids constant at about?
minimum urine formation is?
Descending loop of Henle is permeable to?
Ascending loop of Henle is permeable to? impermeable to?
permeable to sodium pump
impermeable to water
Chemicals that enhance urinary output are?
The volume of plasma that is cleared of a particular substance in a given time, usually one min.
Renal clearance rate equation is:
U=concentration of the substance urine
P= concentration of the substnace in plasma
Cratinine has a RC of?
when filtrate formation decreases or stops completely it is called?
use of an "artifical kidney" apparatus, passing the patients's blood through a membrane tubing that is permeable only to selected substances.
Yellow color in urine is due to?
Urine is slightly acidic around _____pH
The ratio of the mass of a substnace to the mass of an equal volume of distilled water is?
The specific gravity of urine ranges from?
1.001 to 1.035
Water accounts for ____% of urine volume
The largest component of urine by weight apart from water is_______?
Nitrogenous wastes in urine includes_____ & ________
Uric acid and creatinine
The smooth, triangular region of the bladder base outlined by three openings is the?
Maximum capacity of the bladder is?
The act of emptying the urinary bladder is called?
Water occupies two main fluid compartments:
1. intracellular fluid (ICF) ACCOUNTS FOR 65%
2. Extracellular fluid (ECF) ACCOUNTS FOR 35%
extracellular fluid compartments is divided into subcompartments:
2. Interstitial fluid
The fluid portion of the blood is?
______ is in the microscopic spaces between tissue cells.
Water serves as a universal_________?
Equation for computing ions in solution:
mEq/L= ion concentraion(mg/L) X #of electrical charges on one ion
chief cation= __________
major anion= ___________
chief cation= sodium
major anion= chloride
Water intake is typically about?
2500 ml a day in adults
Water output occurs by several routes:
1. Vaporizes out of lungs in expired air
2. Diffuses directly through skin, insensible water loss
______% of water output is excreted by the kidneys in urine
Driving force for water intake is?
Some factors that trigger ADH relsease by reducing blood volume include:
Under certain conditions, ADH also acts to constrict arterioles which directly increases blood pressure or__________.
One of the most important renal functions is regulating the balance between?
sodium imput and out
What is Hypernatremia?
1. Hypernatremia is elevated sodium in the blood
2. Possible cause: could be because of dehydration
3. Concequence:Nervous system impact, thirst, dehydration leads to confusion and lethargy progressing to coma.
What is Hyponatremia?
1.Hyponatremia is when sodium ion concentrate is plasma is below normal.
2.Possible Cause: solute loss or water retention
3. Consequences: Impacts nervous system, neurologic disfunction
What is Hyperkalemia?
1. Hyperkalemia is when blood potassium level is to high
2. Possible cause: renal failure, deficit of aldosterone
3. Consequences: Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, Bradycardia, cardiac arrhythmias.
What is Hypokalemia?
1. Hypokalemia is when blood potassium level is to low.
2. Possible Causes: GI tract disturbances, starvation, diuretic therapy.
3. Consequences: Cardiac arrhythmias, muscle weakness
What is Hyperchloremia?
1. Hyperchloremia is when chlorine levels in the blood are to high
2. Possible causes: dehydration
3. Consequences: no direct clinical symptoms
What is Hypochloremia?
1. Hypochloremia is when chlorine levels in the blood are to low.
2. Possible causes: Metabolic alkalosis(due to vomiting or ingesting to much alkaline substances)or aldosterone deficiency
3.Consequences: no direct clinical symptoms
What is Hypercalcemia?
1. Hypercalcemia is when calcium level in the blood is to high.
2. Possible causes: hyperparathyroidism, excessive vit.D, prolonged mobility
3.Consequences: decreased neuromuscular excitability, cardiac arrhythmias, and arrest
What is Hypocalcemia?
1. Hypocalcemia is when calcium level in the blood is to low
2. Possible cause: burns, vit. D deficiency, renal rubular disease, renal failure.
3.Consequences: tingling of fingers, tremors, skeletal muscle cramps, tetany, convulsions, depressed excitablility of heart, osteomalacia, and fractures
What has the most to say about renal regulation of sodium ions concentrarion in the ECF?
what is not absorbed at all?
Mechanism that regulates glomerular filtration rate is?
Myogenic and Glomerular Apparatus
If your pancreas is having a tough time making glucose/insulin and exceeded T Max you have?
Water absortption that depends on presence of hormone ADH is called?
At any time, when sodium is absorbed, water follows. This is called?
Obligatory water reabsorption
________ requires carriers to transport substances that do not fit across membranes.
T Max means?
Transport Maximum- all carriers are loaded
Parathyroid hormone acts primarily at the? It increases the reabsorption of?
distal convoluted tube
Main cation= potassium
Major anion= phosphate
Urination urge generally comes every?
Maximum bladder capcity is?
Water makes up ___% of urine
Other soutes in urine:
-Uric acid (3rd)
Urochrome results from?
Urea has a RC of___?
WHICH MEANS IT IS FILTERED BUT SOME IS ABSORBED
Creatinine has a RC of ___?
WHICH MEANS IT IS FILTERED BUT SECRETE IT
RC for insulin is___?
Principle abnormalities of water balance are:
dehydration, hypotonic, edema
The first part of water that is absorbed is_______.
The second part is________.
Difference between ADH and Aldosterone is?
ADH-> makes you absorb water
A;dosterone-> makes you reabsorb sodium
Partial Pressure of Plasma in CO2 is____?
35-45 mm Hg
Absolute blood pH limits for life are____.
low 7.0 & high 7.8
Bicarbonate inbalances are regulated by?
Kidneys in extracellular fluid
phosphate is the buffer in ____?
urine and intracellular fluid
Difference between an acid and a base is?
Acid-> proton donor
Base-> proton acceptor
The most important buffer system in extracellular fluid is?
Bicarbonate buffer system
A system of one or more compounds that acts to resists changes in pH when a strong acid or base is added.
3 major chemical buffer systems are?
3. protein buffer
3 ways to determine pH in order from fastest to slowest.
1. Chemical Balance- fastest however least powerful
2. Respiratory- slower but more powerful than chemical
3. Renal- fastest but las longest lasting effect
normal pH range is?
2 things that regulate calcium.
1. parathyroid hormones
Baroreceptors are located in?
Carotid arteries and Aorta
If pH of arterial blood rises above 7.45 a person is said to have?
If pH of arterial blood drops belown 7.35 a person is said to have?