Exam 4

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1

1. Contrast animals with fungi/plants based on material presented in lecture.

Animals ingest food and do not produce their own organic molecules they must consume them.
Animals do not have cell walls but they have surface protiens that add structure and connect cells. Collagen is only found in animals. They also have muscle and nerve cells
Animals produce sexually with aflagellated sperm and a large immobile egg they are produced with meiotic division diploid stage dominates the life cycle.

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2. What are the characteristics common to most animals.

digest, multicellular, sexual reproduction

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3. Explain radial symmetry and give an example of an organism that displays this symmetry.

Radial sea anemone has a top side based on its mouth location

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4. Explain bilateral symmetry and give an example of an organism that displays this symmetry.

Bilateral anthropods and mammals have a ventral or dorsal side left or right anterior posterior

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5. Explain what is meant by “true” tissue.

Collections of specialized cells isolated from other tissues by membranous layers

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6. Explain the terms diploblasitc and triplobalstic.

Diploblastic – 2 germ layers cinidarians
Triploblastic have three layers that unlike diplo has a middle layer called the mso derm between the ecto and endo derm

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7. Contrast acoelomates, pseudoceolomates, and coelomates.

Acoelmates – triploblastic animals lacking a body cavity
Pseudoceolomates- a body cavity compesed from the meso and endoderm
Coelomates- animals with a true coelem(body cavity)

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8. What are the functions of a body cavity.

Fluid cushions organs, some fluid is non compressable and acts as a skeleton, allows organs to grow and work independent of the rest of the body.

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9. Contrast cleavage, coelom formation, and fate of the blastopore in protostomes and deuterostomes.

Cleavage- P eight cells spiral and determinate D radials and indeterminate
Coelom – P forms from slits in the mesoderm D froms from mesodermal outpocketing if the archenteron
Blastopore – P mouth D mouth froms from a secondary openeing

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10. What does phylogeny based on morphology agree with when phylogeny is based on molecular data?

All animals share a common ancestor
Sponges are basal animals
Eumetazoa is a clade of animals with true tissues
Most animal phyla belong to the clade bilateria

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photogenic tree/ cladogram of invertebrates.

Common ancestor, porifera,Cnidaria,Lophotrochozoa,Ecdysozoa,Deuterostomia

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Not composed of true tissues

Porifera

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Bilateral symetry

Lophotrochozoa,Ecdysozoa,Deuterostomia

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Phylum: Porifera

lack true tissues have choanocytes, suspension feeders water is drawn through the spongeocoel snd out through the osculum. body is composed of two layers of cells and a gelatounous region called the mesophyl. they are hermaphrodites. EX.sponges

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Phylum: Cnidaria

Hydrozoa,Scyphozoa,Cubozoa,Anthozoa. UNique stinging structures called nematocysts housed in specialized cells (cnidocytes), diploblastic,raidally symetry,gastrovascular cavity with one opening. polyps face up feeding medusa face down feeding EX. hydras,jellies,sea anemones,corals

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Hydrozoa

Portuguese man of war.

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Sponges:
A.have no true tissue
B.are diploblastic
C.are hermaphrodites
D.have a larval, polyp, and medusa stage

A,C they arre basal animalsthat lack true tissues

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Cnidarians:
A.Have endoderm and ectoderm tissue layer
B.Are sedentary
C.Are a source of antibiotics
D.Have a larval, polyp, and /or medusa stage

A,D ancient phylum of eumetazoans

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Clade: Lophotrochozoa

Platyhelminthes, Rotifera,Ectoprocts & Brachiopods
,Mollusca,Annelida identified by molecuLAR DATA AND GAS THE LARGEST RANGE OF ANIMAL FORMS.

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Platyhelminthes
Trematoda

dorsoventrally flattned unsegmented acoelomates gastrovascular cavity or no digestive tract. EX.flatworms
Parasites of animals have a complex life cycle with two or more hosts and produce a large number of eggs
How does the trematoda avoid the immune response of the host?
It mimmics the cells surface protien of the host
Releases compounds that manipulate the immune system of the host

LARVA

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Rotifera

Pseudocoelomates with alimentary canal(digestive tube with mouth and anus) Jaws(trophi in pharynx head with ciliated crown. Fresh water marine and damp soils
Psedo colon
Alimentart canal separate mouth and anus
Reproduction
Many species that have females only
Produce only female offspring through unfertilized eggs asexual reproduction called parthenogenisis
Some species males live long enough to fertilize the egg

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ectoprocta brachiopoda

Crown of ciliated tentacles
U shaped alimentary mothe and anus same side

coelomates with loctophores aka ciliaed tentacles

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Characteristics of rotifers include:
A. Triploblastic
B. U-shaped alimentary canal
C.Parthenogenic reproduction
D. Pseudocoelom

all but b

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Mollusca

clams,snails,squids
has three main body parts muscular foot,visceral mass and mantle. coleom reduced most have a hard shell made of calcium carbonate

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mollusca /Gastropoda

Gastropod – torsion the viseral mass during embryonic development roatates upto 180 degrees as a result the mantle and the anus is located above the head
Have tentacles with eyes on the end
The land snails play a key role in the nutrient cyc;ing of the soil
The green sea slug phototsythesizes using stolen cholorplasts fron the algae it consumes also incorporates algal dna into its own

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mollusca / Cephalopoda

highly developed sensory organs
Closed circulatory system and a complex brain
They are fast moving predators

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Clade Lophotrochozoa:
A.Do not include acoelomates
B.Are diverse in body style
C.All have a larval stage

B

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Why have mollusks been going extinct?

Habitat loss
And pollution
Introduced spevcies
Over harvesting

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Molluscs bodies are composed of a muscular foot, a visceral mass, and a mantle

true

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Annelida

sexual unsegemented coleomates wit internal organs and digestive tract

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oligochaete

Predators and parasites
Medicine
Blood letting attachment of loss apendages
reestBLISHED BLOOD SUPPLY AND RELEASE AN ANTIQCOAGULATE SO THERE IS NO CLOTTING AND CONSUME POOLED BLOOD SO NO SWEELING

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Clade: Ecdysozoa

Arthropoda and nematoda. Most species rich.

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Anthropoda

coelomates with segemented bydy jointed appendages an exoskeleton made of protien and chitin

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Anthropoda:
Subphylum: Chelicerata

crabs mites spiders claws for feeding small lungs

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Anthropoda:
Subphylum: Hexapoda

insects abdomen thorax and head

36

Characteristics of incomplete metamorphosis include:

A.a final molt that produces an adult that is full sized, winged, and sexually mature
B.a larva that eats and grows
C.winged larvae that are sexually immature
D.pupae that build an adult through cell division and differentiation

A

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Clade: Deuterostomia

echinodermata, chordata have evolveled independantly but are cosely relates.

38

Echindermata. Asteroidea

sea urchins starsOrganization:Brittle stars have a distinct central disk and long, flexible arms.
Locomotion: They use serpentine movements of the arms for locomotion.
Chemical action by the tube feet allow for substrate attachment.
Digestion: Some species are suspension feeders while others are predators or scavengers

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Members of Phylum Echinodermata:
A.have an endoskeleton
B.use tube feet for gas exchange
C.all have skeletal spines

a,b

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Phylum: Chordata

lanclets colomates with notochord dorsal hollow nerve cord phyryngeal slits post anal tail

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10. What are the four characteristics shared by all chordates?

Notochord = flexible rod
Support during embryonic development
Most vertebrate develop jointed skeleton – vertebrae
Humans – notochord reduced – part of disc between vertebrae
Dorsal nerve cord develops into central nervous system
Brain and spinal cord
Pharyngeal slits or clefts
Series of pouches located in the pharynx
Invertebrates filter food from water – filter feeders
Vertebrates (except tetrapods) modified – gas exchange = gills
Tetrapods – slits become part of ear, throat (neck) and head
Post anal tail – develops in skeleton and muscles

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Explain the relationship between the small cluster of nerve cells in the lancelet’s nerve cord and the vertebrate brain.

Family genes = hox genes – responsible for organization of vertebrate brain – cluster of hox genes in the nerve cord of the lancelet

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12. Define craniates. What advanced characteristics do craniates have over non-craniates?

Evolutionary event = development of head = craniates
Coordination of more complex movement and feeding behaviors
Duplication of genes: craniate = two clusters of hox genes
Chordates with heads
Brain at the anterior end of the nerve cord
Eyes and other sensory organs
Skull

Cephalochordate = 1 cluster

44

13. Define vertebrates. Give examples of evolutionary advances of vertebrates.

Lineage of craniates – vertebrates
More complex nervous system
Elaborate skeleton – backbone = vertebrae
More efficient movement and feeding behaviors
Gene duplication: Dlx genes = code for transcription factors
Lamprey- least evolved living lineage of vertebrates

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14. What is the oldest living lineage of vertebrates? What composes the skeletal structure of this lineage?

Petromyzontida
Skeleton = cartilage
Notochord = main skeletal structure
Has projections that enclose the nerve cord

46

15. Define Gnathostomes and explain their shared derived characteristics.

Evolutionary event: jawed vertebrates - Gnathostomes
Jaw: modification of skeletal rods that support the pharyngeal slits or gills
Shared derived characters:
Jaw
Enlarged forebrain: increased sense of smell and vision
Lateral line system: series of organs that run along both sides of the organism
Detect vibrations in surrounding water
Gene duplication: four clusters of hox genes

47

16. Explain the reproduction methods used by sharks

Sexual reproduction: internal fertilization
Oviparous: eggs layed – hatch outside the body of mother – egg yolk in eggs
Ovoviparous: embryos develop in oviduct of mother, hatch in uterus – live birth – egg yolk in eggs
Viviparous: embryos develop and hatch in uterus – live birth
Nutrition
From mothers blood via a yolk sac placenta
Absorb nutrients from fluid produced by uterus
Eat siblings

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18. What is the skeleton of chondrichtyes composed of?

Skeleton cartilage impregnated with calcium

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19. What is the skeleton of osteichthyes composed of?

Bony endoskeleton: calcium phosphate

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21. Explain the reproduction method of seahorses.

male is pregnant not female, female inserts oviduct, releases eggs into his brooding pouch – fertilization and development of offspring

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22. Define tetrpods.

Neck with 2 vertebrae. One up, one down, one on each side of head
Pelivc girdle (bone) fused to back bone
Pharyngeal clefts present during embryonic development become part of their ears and glands
Modifies characteristics

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23. What lineage gave rise to tetrapods?

Gnathostomes

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25. Characteristics of amphibians

Moist habitat
Moist skin and lungs for gas exchange. Breathe through skin
Most species they use external fertilization- lay eggs and then fertilized by male
Some species ovoviviparous and some viviparous
Marsupial Frogs

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27. Define amniotes and explain the membranes of an amniotic egg.

Amniotes
Produce eggs with 4 membranes
Amnions contain or holds the flow that bathes and cushions embryo
3 membranes: gas exchange, transfer of nutrients, waste storage
Use of rib cage to ventilate lungs
No skin for gas exchange
Less permeable skin, helps prevent dehydration
Reptiles and Mammals

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28. Explain (compare and contrast) reptilian body temperature control and reproductive methods.

Reptilia: Turtles, alligators, crocodiles, lizards, snakes, birds
Protein keratin scales that cover skin. This decreases desiccation and protects against abrasion
Internal fertilization
Most lay eggs on land
Snakes and Lizards
Many are viviparous
Ectothermic: use skin to maintain body temperature
Alligators and Crocodiles
Oviparous
Nest of decaying vegetation, heat, and incubate eggs
Sex is determined by nest temperature. Lower temp. for females (86 degrees), Higher temp. Male (93 degrees)
Birds and Flight
Weight saving modification
involves no urinary bladder
Females only have 1 ovary
No teeth
Wings, feathers and bones- honeycombed, spaces are filled with air.
Well developed vision and sight
Proportionately bigger brains than amphibians and other reptiles
Parental care
Endothermic- maintain own body temperature
Ratite birds- Flightless
Different bone and muscle structure
Penguins aren’t ratite. Fly in water

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29. Explain characteristics that make birds different from other reptiles.

involves no urinary bladder
Females only have 1 ovary
No teeth
Wings, feathers and bones- honeycombed, spaces are filled with air.
Well developed vision and sight
Proportionately bigger brains than amphibians and other reptiles
Parental care
Endothermic- maintain own body temperature

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31. Explain the characteristics that set mammals apart from other amniotes.

Hair and mammary glands which produce milk for young
Metabolism requires efficient circulatory and respiratory system
4 chambered heart
Diaphragm assists breathing
Proportionately larger brains
Modified teeth: Shearing, grinding, crushing

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32. Explain the differences between montremes and other mammals.

Platypus and spiny anteater
No nipples- milk secreted by glands on abdomen of mother
Only mammal that lays eggs

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33. Explain the differences between marsupials and Eutherian mammals.

Marsupials: Kangaroo, koalas, possum, sugar glider, Tasmanian Devil
Nipples
Young develop in uterus (viviparous)
Nutrients are supplied by placenta
Born young, finish development in maternal pouch

Eutherians:
Placental mammals
Complete development in uterus, fed by placenta
Placenta more complex than marsupial placenta
Nipples

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34. Which three groups compose the classification primates?

apes monkeys humans

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35. Explain the difference between new world and old world monkeys.

New World
Arboreal
Prehensile tail
Nostrils open sides of nose
Spider monkey, squirrel monkey, capuchin
Old World
Arboreal and ground-dwelling
Tails aren’t prehensile
Nostrils open downward
Both groups have most monkeys as diurnal
Social groups

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36. Explain the differences between apes and monkeys.

no tail in apes some are solitary

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37. Explain the characteristics that separate humans from apes.

Hominins differed in:
Skull shape
Body size
Diet

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38. How much of the genome do humans and chimpanzees have in common?

99%

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Homohabilis

Earliest hominin placed in our genus = Homo
Smaller jaw and larger brain than the austrolopiths
Sharp stone weapons

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Homo egaster

Much larger brain
Hips and legs, long distance walking
More sophisticated tools
Consumed more meat than plant
Processed food
Mashed
Cook

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46. Where on earth does DNA evidence suggest all living humans originated from?

ancestors in Africa

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Explain possible reasons why Homo sapiens survived while other Homo species went extinct.

Rapid expansion of Homo Sapiens in Europe and Asia led to the extinction of Neanderthals
Homo sapiens have higher cognition, perception, learning and reasoning abilities

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Did Neanderthal and Homo sapiens interbreed? Explain why or why not. Support with evidence.

They took mitochondrial DNA from neanderthal fossils and living humans in Europe and Asia
DNA Sequences showed neanderthals and living humans in Europe were more different than humans in Asia and humans in Europe