Microbiology Chapter 16

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Vocab words to study for chapter 16.
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1

Normal Microbiota (normal flora)

organisms that routinely reside on the body's surface.

2

Immunocompromised

Having the immune system impaired or weakened

3

Mutualism

Both partners benefit

4

Commensalism

One partner benefits; the other is harmed

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Parasitism

One organism benefits at the cost of the other

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Resident Microbiota

inhabit site for extended periods

7

Transient Microbiota

inhabit temporarily

8

Colonization

refers to establishing itself on body surface

9

Infection

Can be used to refer to pathogen

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Subclinical

no/mild symptoms

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Infectious disease

Yields noticeable impairment

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Symptoms

subjective effects experienced by patient (pain, nausea)

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Signs

Objective evidence ( rash, pus formation , swelling)

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Initial Infection

Primary infection

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Secondary Infection

Damage can predispose individual to developing a Secondary Infection (Respiratory illness impairing mucociliary escalator)

16

Primary Pathogen

A microbe or virus that causes disease in otherwise healthy individual .

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Opportunistic Pathogen

(opportunist)causes disease only when body's innate or adaptive defenses are compromised or when introduced into unusual location

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Virulence

refers to degree of pathogenicity

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Virulence Factors

are traits that allow microorganism to cause disease

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Communicable/ Contagious

Diseases spread easily

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Infectious Dose

Is the number of microbes nessary to establish infection

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Incubation Period

Time between infection and onset
Varies; few days (common cold) - year (Hansen's disease)

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Illness

Signs and symptoms of disease

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Prodromal Phase

Vague Symptopms

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Convalescence

Recuperation, recovery from disease

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Carriers

May harbor and spread infectious agent for long periods of time in absence of signs or symptoms

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Acute Infections

Symptoms develop quickly, last short time (e.g., strep throat)

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Chronic Infections

Develop slowly, last for months or years (tuberculosis)

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Latent Infections

Never completely eliminated; microbe exist in host tissues without causing symptoms

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Localized Infection

Microbe limited to small area ( boil)

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Systemic Infection

Agent disseminated throughout body

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Bacteremia

Bacteria circulating in blood
Not necessarily a disease state

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Toxemia

toxins circulating in bloodstream

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Viremia

Viruses circulating in bloodstream

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Septicemia or sepsis

Acute, life-threatening illness caused by infectious agents or products in bloodstream

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Adhesins

attach to host cell receptor

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Receptor

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