Endocrine Hormones

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created 7 years ago by BrielRose84
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27 Hormones, their name, produced by, target and their functions.
updated 7 years ago by BrielRose84
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1

Oxytocin

Produced by: Hypothalamus
Target: Uterine & Breast
Function: Strong stimulant of uterine contraction & Hormonal trigger for milk ejection (the "letdown" reflex) in lactating women & neurotransmitter in the brain
(Small: 9 AA-long)

2

Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
AKA Vasopressin

Produced by: Hypothalamus
Target: Kidneys
Function: prevents wide swings in water balance, helping the body avoid dehydration and water overload
High concentrations = vasoconstriction
-Inhibited by alcohol, diuretics
(Small 9 AA-long)

3

Growth Hormone (GH)
or Somatotropin

Produced by: Somatotropic cells of the anterior lobe
Target: Bone and skeletal muscle
Function: Has direct actions on metabolism, and mediates growth via growth-promoting protein and insulin-like growth factors (IGFs). IGFs stimulate nutrient uptake and formation and deposition collagen/bone.

4

Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH)
or Thyrotropin

Produced by: Thyrotropic cells of the anterior pituitary lobe (TRH)
Target: Thyroid gland
Function: Stimulates thyroid activity
Trigger: thyrotropic-releasing hormone (hypothalamus)
Inhibition: high blood levels of thyroid hormones
(Tropic)

5

Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH)
or Corticotropin

Produced by: Corticotropic cells of the anterior pituitary (CRH)
Target: Adrenal Cortex
Function: Stimulates the adrenal cortex to release corticosteroid hormones
Triggers: Rhythms: corticotropin releasing hormone (hypothalamus) Fever, low sugar, stress
(Tropic)

6

Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH)

Produced by: Gonadotrophic cells of the anterior pituitary lobs
Target: Ovaries and Testes
Function: In females, stimulates ovarian follicle maturation and estrogen production
In males, promotes testosterone production
Triggers: GnRH pruberty
Suppression: gonadal hormones
(Tropic)

7

Luteinizing Hormone (LH)

Produced by: Gonadotrophic cells of the anterior pituitary
Target: Ovaries and Testes
Function: In females, triggers ovulation and stimulates ovarian production of estrogen and progesterone
In males, promotes testosterone production
Triggers: GnRH puberty
Suppression: gonadal hormones
(Tropic)

8

Prolactin (PRL)

Produced by: Prolactin Cells of the anterior pituitary
Target: Breasts
Function: Stimulate milk production by the breasts

9

Thyroxine (T4)

Produced by: Thyroid follicles
Target: Every cell in the body
Function: Increasing basal metabolic rate and body heat production, regulating tissue growth and development, and maintaining blood pressure.

10

Triiodothyronine (T3)

Produced by: Thyroid follicles
Target: Every cell in the body
Function: Increasing basal metabolic rate and body heat production, regulating tissue growth and development, and maintaining blood pressure.

11

Parathyroid Hormone (PTH)

Produced by: Parathyroid cells in parathyroid glands
Target: Bones, kidneys, and intestine
Function: Simulates osteoclasts (bone-resorbing cells), enhances reabsorption of Calcium by the kidneys, and promotes activation of vitamin D, thereby increasing absorption of Calcium by intestinal mucosal cells. Kidneys must first convert Vit D to its active D3 form, calcitriol in order to absorb Calcium from food.

12

Aldosterone

Produced by: Adrenal Gland
Target: Kidneys
Function: Increase blood levels of Sodium and decrease blood levels of Potassium; since water reabsorption accompanies sodium retention, blood volume and blood pressure rise

13

Angiotensin II

Produced by: Liver and Lungs
Target: Kidneys
Function: Stimulates the glomerulosa cells to release aldosterone

14

Cortisol (Hydrocortisone)
Cortisone, and Corticosterone (Not secreted in significant amounts)

Produced by: ACTH
Target: Body Cells
Function:Promote gluconeogenesis and hyperglycemia; mobilize fats for energy metabolism; stimulate protein catabolism; assist body to resist stressors; depress inflammatory and immune responses.

15

Androgens

Produced by: ACTH
Target: Many
Function: Insignificant effects in males
Females, contributes to libido; development of pubic and axillary hair; source of estrogen after menopause

16

Epinephrine

Produced by: Preganglionic fibers of the sympathetic nervous system
Target: Sympathetic nervous system target organs
Function: Effects mimic sympathetic nervous system activation; increased heart rate and metabolic rate; increase blood pressure by promoting vasoconstriction

17

Norepinephrine (NE)

Produced by: Preganglionic fibers of the sympathetic nervous system
Target: Sympathetic nervous system target organs
Function: Effects mimic sympathetic nervous system activation; increased heart rate and metabolic rate; increase blood pressure by promoting vasoconstriction

18

Glucagon

Produced by: Pancreas
Target: Liver
Function: Breakdown of glycogen to glucose, synthesis of glucose from lactic acid and from noncarbohydrate molecules, and release of glucose to the blood by liver cells causing blood glucose levels to rise.

19

Insulin

Produced by: Pancreas
Target: Liver and tissue cells
Function: Lower blood glucose levels, influences protein and fat metabolism. 3 ways it lowers blood glucose levels: Enhances membrane transport of glucose into most body cells, especially muscle and fat cells. Inhibits the breakdown of glycogen to glucose. Inhibits the conversion of amino acids or fats to glucose.

20

Estrogens

Produced by: Gonads = Ovaries
Target: Uterus
Function: Maturation of the reproductive organs and the appearance of the secondary sex characteristics of females at puberty. With Progesterone they promote breast development and cyclic changes in the uterine mucosa (the menstrual cycle)

21

Progesterone

Produced by: Gonads = Ovaries
Target: Uterus
Function: Acting with estrogens it promotes breast development and cyclic changes in the uterine mucosa (the menstrual cycle)

22

Testosterone

Produced by: Gonads = Scrotum
Target:
Function: During puberty, testosterone initiates the maturation of the male reproductive organs and the appearance of secondary sex characteristics and sex drive. Is also necessary for normal sperm production and maintains the reproductive organs in their mature functional state adult males.

23

Resistin

Produced by: Adipose cells
Target: Fat, muscle and liver
Function:Antagonizes insulin's action

24

Atrial Natriuretic Peptide (ANP)

Produced by: Response to rising blood pressure (heart)
Target: Kidneys and adrenal cortex
Function: Inhibits sodium ion reabsorption and renin release (kidney)
Inhibits secretion of aldosterone; decreases blood pressure (Adrenal cortex)

25

Erythropoietin (EPO)

Produced by: Response to hypoxia (kidneys)
Target: Red bone marrow
Function: Stimulates production of red blood cells

26

Gastrin

Produced by: Secreted in response to food (Stomach)
Target: Stomach
Function: Stimulates glands to release hydrochloric acid (HCl)

27

Cholecystokinin (CCK)

Produced by: Secreted in response to food (Duodenum)
Target: Pancreas, gallbladder and hepatopancreatic sphincter
Function: Stimulates release of enzyme-rich juice (pancreas)
Stimulates expulsion of stored bile (gallbladder)
Causes sphincter to relax, allowing bile and pancreatic juice to enter duodenum (hepatopancreatic sphincter)