Exam 3. Respiration, Digestion, and Metabolism

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Digestion Portion
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1

5 Functions of the Digestive System

1. Ingest Food
2. Prepulsion (peristalsis)
3. Digest (breakdown)
4. Absorption
5. Defacation

2

2 Digestive Processes

1. Mechanical
2. Chemical

3

Specific proteins that are temp and pH sensitive

Enzymes

4

Enzyme to break down Sucrose

Sucrase

5

Enzyme to break down Lactose

Lactase

6

3 Parts of the Small Intestine

-Duodenum
-Jejunum
-Ileum

7

6 Parts of Large Intestine

-cecum
-appendix
-ascending colon
-transverse colon
-descending colon
-sigmoid colon

8

Sphincter located between stomach and small intestine:

pyloric shincter

9

Sphincter located between rectum and anal canal:

Internal anal sphincter

10

Only sphincter with voluntary control:

external anal sphincter

11

Organ that produces bile to send thru the hepatic ducts:

Liver

12

Hepato

Liver

13

Cysto

Gallbladder

14

Organ attached to underside of liver that stores bile:

Gallbladder

15

Secretes many enzymes and bicarbonate (HCO3-)

Pancreas

16

Pathway for Bile:

Hepatic Duct & Cystic Duct > common bile duct > Hepatopancreatic Sphincter > Duodenum

17

98% water, antibodies, lysozyme, mucus

Saliva

18

functions to cleanse the moth, moisten food, help with chemical breakdown:

Saliva

19

3 Salivary Glands:

1. Parotid
2. Sublingual
3. Submandibular

20

Organ that absorbs and digests nutrients

Small intestine

21

4 Layers of S.I. Tract

1. Mucosa
2. Submucosa
3. Muscularis externa
4. Serosa

22

pH of the Mouth

6.8

23

pH of the Stomach

1.8

24

pH of the SI

5.4

25

What do these have in common- H2O, minerals, vitamins, glucose, alcohol

Substances which do NOT require digestion

26

No digestion or absorption

Esophagus

27

Upper 1/2 of Esophagus is made up of what type of muscle?

Skeletal Muscle - Voluntary

28

Lower 1/2 of Esophagus is made up of what type of muscle?

Smooth Muscle- Involuntary

29

Reverse Peristalsis

To Vomit

30

Functions of the Stomach:

1. aid in digestion
2. Acid secretion
3. Stores food
4. Produces Intrinsic Factor

31

Protein needed to absorb Vitamin B12 and needed for RBC Synthesis to maintain neurons:

Intrinsic Factor

32

Feeling of fullness:

Satiety

33

3 Muscle Layers of the Stomach:

1. Circular
2. Longitudinal
3. Oblique

34

Lining of Stomach:

Mucosa and Submucosa

35

Pepsin and HCl can erode mucosa in stomach leading to:

Ulcers

36

4 things needed for enzyme reactions to work:

1. Enzyme is specific to substrate
2. Correct (body) temp
3. Mixing
4. correct pH

37

How long does food stay in the stomach

4-6 hours

38

What organ has a massive surface area?

Small Intestine

39

Key structures of SI

Plicae circularis, villi, microvilli

40

2 Absorption Routes

Water soluble and fat soluble

41

4 Lobes of the Liver

Right, Left, Caudate, Quadrate

42

7 Functions of Liver

1. Detox
2. Stores fat soluble vitamins
3. Store Iron
4. Process nutrients
5. Lipogenesis
6. Protein synthesis
7. produces bile

43

When bile becomes too concentrated and crystalized

gallstones

44

Inflammation of the liver tissue:

Hepatitis

45

Chronic inflammation of liver due to viral infection or alcoholism-liver cells die, scar tissue forms

cirrhosis

46

Liver enlarges:

Fibrosis

47

3 Movements of Colon (LI)

1. Haustral churning
2. Peristalsis
3. Mass Movements

48

Reside in colon to breakdown fiber which then creates gases:

Bacteria flora

49

Functions of the colon:

1. water absoption
2. absorb vitamins
3. form and eliminate feces

50

out-pocketing of weakened sidewalls (LI)

diverticulitis

51

Most likely for Colon Cancer

Sigmoid and Rectum