What are two parts of the blood?
Plasma and cellular elements (ex: RBC's, WBC's, platelets)
What is the major function of a RBC's?
To carry oxygen and nutrients
What is the major function of WBC's?
Aid in the immune response
What is a major function of platelets?
To aid in blood clotting
What does blood carry?
Oxygen and nutrients, wastes and parasites
What is blood plasma made of?
Makes 55% of total volume of blood, made of mostly water, contains numerous molecules called plasma proteins and extra cellular fluid
What is the process of RBC formation?
What is the process of WBC formation?
Which of the following is not true about RBC's?
a.The normal shape is given by a recessive gene
b.RBC have a bioconcave disk shape
d. People with normal RBC's are homozygous dominant
People with recessive heterozygous sickle cell anemia are partially immune to ________?
What structure in the hemoglobin binds to oxygen?
The iron in the heme group
What is a major difference between adult hemoglobin and fetal hemoglobin?
Adult hemoglobin has two alpha and two beta while fetal hemoglobin has two alpha and two gamma chains in order to attract more oxygen
What are thrombocytes?
they are made from megakarycytes. they aid in blood clotting. are called platelets
what are leukocytes?
white blood cells. divide into agranulocytes and granulucytes. aid in immune responses
what is the order of leukocytes, from most numerous to least?
(Never Let Monkeys Eat Bananas)
Expel their nucleus and lost ability to reproduce
Expel organelles so they can be more efficient at transporting oxygen
expel their nucleus, ribosomes and mitochondria
What is the life span of an RBC?
What about a WBC?
RBC's is approx 120 days
WBC'S vary in lifespans
Where is blood formed in the fetus?
In the Yolk Sac (aka blood islands)
Where does the RBC undergo hemolysis?
What is true about a sickle shaped cell?
Sickle shaped cells are crescent shaped, causes clots and tissue starvation and heterozygous recessive genes are partially immune to malaria
what is not true about sickle cell anemia?
It is passed through a dominant gene
Passed through a female anopheles mosquito that has a final host/sexual reproduction
uses a human as a intermediate host (asexual reproduction)
feeds on rbc's and accumulates waste causing the blood cell to burst
Fill in the Blanks:
When a ___________ picks up the parasite after biting an infected human and they sexually reproduce. when they bite you they leave the parasites in your blood. the parasites then travel to your liver and reproduces ________. This mode of reproduction is extremely fast. after they go through your blood stream, if they go back to the ____________ the cycle repeats itself. after reproducing in the liver, they get in to __________ and accumulate waste in the RBC. The cell then ruptures and releases the parasites into the blood ________. the parasites look for another RBC every ___________ hours.
Contaminated feces contains the eggs and the eggs go to the open ________. the eggs are tough and last for weeks. _______ contact infects you and you get a rash and swelling. they then bore through the skin and travel to the ______ and circulatory system. they break through the intestinal walls and feed on ______. The treatment is called _____.
Which of the following is false about blood types?
a. type O is a universal donor
b. type AB blood is the universal reciever
c. an antibody is a surface molecule that identifies a substance
d. an antibody attacks a foreign substance and is the cause of aggulutination
What are the four chambers of the heart?
Left atrium, right atrium
Left ventricle, right ventricle
The left atrium collects blood from the
the hepatic portal system for the arteries are for
The epicardium of the heart is the same at the
Free edges of the AV valves are attached to fibers called
Put the conduction system in order the action potential will pass
1. Sinoatrial Node (SA)
2. Atrioventricular (AV node)
3. AV bundler ( Bundle of HIZ)
4. Left and right bundles
5. purkinje fibers
Put the steps of blood flow in the heart in the correct order
1. vena cavae
2. right atrium
3. right ventricle
4. pulmonary arteries
5. pulmonary veins
Label each term
What happens if the pacemaker of the heart stops
the av node will take over
How do cardiac muscle cells differ from skeletal cells?
Cardiac muscle cells have connected intercalated disks........?
What are the functions of the cardiac ( fibrous ) skeleton?
Interconnects, stabilizes heart valves
electrically insulates the ventricular from the atrial cells
point of muscle attachment
prevents overstretching of heart
Typical response from the cardiovasucal system to exercise?
increase in cardiac output
What processes are involved in the cellular development of the mitochondria?
Hyperplasia, hypertrophy, cell migration and apoptosis
Tentanay occurs only in