Chemistry Ch. 1 Flashcards
the study of matter and the changes that matter undergoes.
anything that has mass and occupies space.
3 State (phases) of Matter
There are also pure materials and mixtures for each of these forms of matter.
are the building blocks of matter
Each _____ is made of the same kind of atom
is made of two ore more different kinds of elements
mixture of subtances
Chemists classify matter as either a _______ or a ______ of _______.
a form of matter that has definite composition and distinct properties.
salt (sodium chloride), iron, water, mercury, carbon dioxide, and oxygen are examples of ______
appearance, smell, taste
Substances differ from one another in composition and may be identified by ______, ______, ______, and other properties.
physical combination of two or more substances.
2 types of Mixtures
a mixture that is uniform throughout
also called a solution
seawater, apple juice, sugar water, vodka, brass, air are examples of
a mixture that is NOT uniform throughout
trail mix, chicken noodle soup, carbonated drink, salt water from a sandy beach, multi-grain flour, fruit salad, granite, tomato juice, sand are examples of
2 properties or matter are
a property of Matter
Can be observed without changing a substance into another substance.
Boiling point, density, mass, volume, etc.
Give examples of physical properties of matter
a property of Matter
Can only be observed when a substance is changed into another substance.
Flammability, corrosiveness, reactivity with acid, etc.
Give examples of chemical properties of matter
2 Types of matter
Are INDEPENDENT of the amount of the substance that is present.
Density, boiling point, color, etc.
Give exampleas of Intensive Properties
Depend upon the amount of the substance present.
Mass, volume, energy, etc.
Give exampleas of Extensive Properties
Types of Changes
These are the changes in matter that ______ ______ change the composition of a subtance
Examples, Changes of state, ______, volume, etc
Chemical changes result in ______ substances.
Eg: ______, oxidation, ______, etc.
solid, liquid or gas
Classification of Matter
All substances can, in principle, exist as a ______, ______, or ______.
We convert a substance from one state to another without _______ the identity of the substance.
Do not conform to the shape of their container
Conforms to the shape of their container, but they have their own volume.
Shape of container
Assume both shape and volume of their container
Shape of Container
Volume of Container
A ______ can be separated by physical means into its components without changing the identities of the components.
In ______, solid substances are separated from liquids and solutions.
You can also extract ______ from solid mixtures using their properties:
The iron fillings are atracted by the magnet and they are separated from the sand mixture.
______ uses differences in the boiling points of substances to separate a homogeneous mixture into its components.
the most ______ state of matter
the particles are far away from each other, they don’t closely ______.
Gases take the form of their ______, so basically they fill up the entire space of the container.
In an idealized gas, the particles don’t interact with each other, since they are assumed to be far away from each other due to the low density of gaseous samples.
Gases are compressible
eg: CO2, CO, O2
3 Physical Properties of GASES to consider in order to describe gas samples
All related to the ideal gas law
Kelvin or Celcius
Temperature (measured in ______ or ______) – it is important to know a gaseous sample’s temperature, because this can change some of the other properties as well.
Pressure (measured in ______ or other units) - this can vary inversely proportional to the volume (the more pressurized a gas, the higher the pressure – the smaller the volume it takes).
Volume (measured in ______, ______etc.) - this is the same as the volume of the container that contains the gas at a specific pressure and temperature.
the particles are ______ together than in gases, but ______ away than solids
Liquids also take the form of their containers, but they don’t fill up the entire _____ of the container
retain their volume
shape is not retained