Bio 1AL: Lab 2

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Bio 1AL: Lab 2
updated 10 years ago by knagpal3
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1

Four Axioms of Cell Theory

1. All organisms made up of cells--basic unit of struc and func
2. Cells programmed for reproduction & metabolism
3. Cells come from pre-existing cells
4. Cells organized according to fundamental eukaryotic or prokaryotic pattern

2

Kingdoms

Bacteria, Archaea, Eukarya (Prior: Monera, Protista, Animalia, Fungi, Plantae)

3

Organelles in Euk (4)

Golgi, Mitochondria, Chloroplasts, lysosomes

4

Difference Between Archae, Bacteria

Archaea: Have introns
16s rRNA differs, different composition of phospholipids in plasma membrane, differences in cell wall components

5

Characterization Tools of Eubacteria

Five main taxa split on the following characteristics:
Morphology (Spherical cocci vs rod bacilli vs spiral spirilli)
Cell Wall Composition (gram positive vs gram negative)
Ability to carry out photosynthesis and symbiosis

6

Size of prokaryotes

1-10 um

7

Cell Envelope Characteristics

Glycocalyx: outer layer of gelatinous polymer composed of polysacc, polypeptides, or both
-Prevents dessiccation & resistance to phatocytosis by host cells
Cell Wall: rigid meshwork of peptidoglycan
Flagella: long, filamentous, helical appendages
Pili: Apendages--specific receptors for adhesion & cell-cell interactions

8

Mesosomes

Invaginations in cell membrane that increase surface area

9

Attached Cells

Diplococci=paired cocci
Streptococci=strands of cocci
Staphylococci=Clumpted cocci

10

Gram Staining Procedure

1. Heat-fix cells to slide and stain with crystal violet
2. Iodine add
3. Rinse with alcohol
4. Safranin counter stain
Gram positive=violet, thick cell wall
Gram negative=red, complex membrane out of wall: permeable to hydrophilic subs, lots of lipopolysaccharides, barrier to antibiotics and destructive enzymes
(Escherichia coli, Bacillus megaterium, Staphylococcus Aureus)

11

Cyanobacteria

Blue-green algae, are gram negative, O2 photosynthesis, nitrogen fixation (Anabaena sp)

12

Eukaryote Kingdoms

Plantae, Animilia, Fungi, Protists

13

Protozoans

Animal-like protists char by movement (flagellate, ciliate, amoeboid), arose from either single ciliates (multinucleated) or colonial flagellates

14

Cell types in humans

Epithelia, Connective, Muscle, Nervous

15

Types of muscle tissue

Skeletal, smooth, cardiac

16

Plant features

Large central vacuole, rigid cell wall
Three systems: ground tissue, vascular tissue, dermal tissue

17

Ground Tissue in plants

Parenchyma, collenchyma, sclerenchyma

18

Vascular Tissue in plants

Xylem and Phloem

19

Dermal Tissue in plants

Protective

20

Mitochondria process & Modified chloroplasts

Oxidative phosphorylation & starch storing amyloplasts

21

Plants being examined

Elodia leaf, Green algae Nitella--streaming

22

Protist characteristics

Most are aquatic and unicellular

23

Protazoans examined

Amoeba:watch from formation of psuedopodia (ext of cell membrane), also contractile vacuole
Ciliate: Paramecium examined--Methocel to increase viscosity
Flagellate: Euglena, also add methocel
Diatoms: brown chloroplasts (a, c, and fucoxanthin). some heterotrophic

24

Heterocysts

...