The bean-shaped kidneys lie in a ____________ position.
An adult's kidney has a mass of about?
150g (5 ounces)
The average dimensions of an adult kidney are?
What mass sits atop of the kidneys but is functionally unrelated?
the adrenal (suprarenal) gland
Three layers of supportive tissue that surrounds each kidney are?
- The renal fascia
- The perirenal fat capsule
- The fibrous capsule
An outer layer of dense fibrous connective tissue that anchors the kidney to surrounding structures?
the renal fascia
A fatty mass that surrounds the kidney and cushions it against blows?
The perirenal fat capsule
A transparent capsule that prevents infections in surrounding regions from spreading to the kidney?
The fibrous capsule
An event when one or both kidneys may drop to a lower position?
Backup of urine from ureteral obstruction or other causes is called?
Three distinct regions of the kidney are?
The most superficial region of the kidney that appears light-colored and has a granular appearance.
The renal cortex
Deep to the cortex is a darker reddish-brown layer which exhibits cone-shaped tissue masses called renal pyramids is called?
The apex of each renal pyramid is called?
The _________ are inward extensions of cortical tissue that separate each pyramid.
the kidney is made up of how many lobes?
The _________ is a funnel-shaped tube which is continuous with the ureter leaving the hilum.
Branching extensions of the pelvis form two or three ____________.
The job of the calyces is to?
The walls of the calyces, pelvis, and ureter contain smooth muscle which do what?
contract rhythmically to propel urine by peristalsis
an infection of the renal pelvis and calyces,
Infections or inflammations that affect the entire kidney
The structural ad functional units of the kidneys
Each kidney contains over ___ million of these tiny blood-processing units which carry out the processes that forms urine
Each nephron consists of a _______ and a _________.
renal corpuscle, renal tubule
Each renal corpuscle consists of a tuft of capillaries called?
A cup-shaped hollow structure that is the first step in filtration of blood to form urine.
Glomerular capsule (Bowman's capsule)
The endothelium of the glomerular capillaries is _____________meaning they are exceptionally porous.
(glomerular capillaries are very leaky)
The plasma-derived fluid or__________ is the raw material that the renal tubules process to form urine.
The glomerular capsule has two layers.
An external parietal layer and a visceral layer.
the parietal layer of the glomerular capsule is made up of what tissue type?
simple squamous epithelium
The visceral layer of the glomerular capsule that clings to the glomerular capillaries is what tissue type?
highly modified, branching epithelial cells
The highly modified, branching epithelial cells in the visceral layer of glomerular capsules are called?