A & P Chapter 3

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1

Cell

smallest living unit
In human body:
~75 trillion cells
~200 different types
2μm-1m (average 50μm)

2

Metabolic turnover

lets your body grow, change, and adapt to new conditions and activities Your body recycles and renews all of its chemical components at intervals ranging from minutes to years

3

Cellular Organization

1. shapes, 2. function, 3.plasma membrane, 4.cytoplasm, 5.cytosol, 6.organelles, 7.interstitial fluid

4

shapes

Different cells have different shapes

5

function

Unique morphology is related to function

6

plasma membrane

All cells surrounded by plasma membrane:
–Separates cells from the environment

7

cytoplasm

Plasma membrane “holds in” the cytoplasm

8

cytosol/organelles

Cytoplasm consists of cytosol (fluid) and organelles (structures)

9

interstitial fluid

Body cells surrounded by interstitial fluid
– Interstitial fluid = fluid outside the membrane

10

Cell Types

Different cells have different shapes and their unique morphology is related to unique function

11

Somatic cells

all body cells except sex cells

12

Common Characteristics of All Eukaryotic Cells

-Cells are the building blocks of all plants and animals
- All cells come from the division of preexisting cells
-Cells are the smallest units that perform all vital physiological functions
-Each cell maintains homeostasis at the cellular level

13

The Plasma membrane-Functions

-Physical barrier to maintain homeostasis: separates intracellular fluid (cytosol) from extracellular fluid (iterstitial fluid)
-different conditions in each
-Regulates exchange with extracellular environment
-Provides sensitivity: cell communication and
signaling
-Provides structural support: attachment site
to hold tissues together

14

The Plasma Membrane-Components

1.Phospholipids 2.Cholesterol 3.Carbohydrates

15

Phospholipids

self assemble into bilayer

16

Cholesterol

resist osmotic lysis

17

Carbohydrates

linked to other molecules as proteoglycans, glycoproteins, and glycolipids (carb part protrudes from extracellular side creating outer carb layer called glycocalyx)

18

Functions of glycocalyx

-lubrication & protection
-anchoring & locomotion
-binding specificity (acts as
receptor)
-self recognition

19

Proteins

1/2 mass of plasma membrane

20

integral proteins

span width of membrane

21

peripheral proteins

adhere to inner or outer surface

22

Functions of membrane proteins

1.anchoring proteins 2.recognition proteins
3.enzymes 4.receptors 5.carrier proteins 5.channels

23

anchoring proteins

attachment

24

recognition proteins

self identification by immune system

25

enzymes

catalyze reactions in cytosol or extra cellular fluid

26

receptors

bind ligands for signaling, or import/export

27

carrier proteins

transport solutes in/out

28

channels

move ions & H2O in/out