United States History: US History Chapter 18 Flashcards


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1

De Jure Segregation

Segregation imposed by law

2

Plessy vs. Ferguson

Supreme court ruled that de jure segregation was constitutional as long as the facilities for blacks and whites were "separate but equal"

3

How did segregation differ in the North from that in the South?

In the south, Jim Crow Laws enforced strict separation (de jure) of races and they could not vote, while in the north, African Americans faced segregation(de facto) and discrimination, they were denied housing, could often only get low-paying jobs, and they could vote

4

De Facto Segregation

Segregation by unwritten custom of tradition

5

Congress of Racial Equality

Founded by James Farmer; influenced by Thoreau and Gandhi; became convinced that African Americans could apply direct non-violent methods to gain civil rights

6

What Role did Jackie Robinson Play in Fighting Segregation?

He was the very first African American to play major league baseball; braved down threats and rough treatment but paved the way for integration of other sports

7

What progress did Truman make in promoting civil rights?

Appointed a Committee on Civil Rights to investigate race relations; the committee recommended an anti lynching law and federal protection of voting rights; used his power to order the desegregation of the military

8

How did the NAACP fight segregation?

Interracial organization founded in 1909 to abolish segregation and discrimination and to achieve political and civil rights for African Americans;challenged the legality of segregation in courts; challenged segregated public education

9

Thurgood Marshall

African American lawyer who headed the legal team that challenged the legality of segregation in courts

10

Brown vs. Board of Education

The NAACP challenged the "separate but equal" principle in which the Supreme Court agreed that segregated public education violated the U.S. Constitution

11

"The Southern Manifesto"

Members of congress pledged to oppose the Brown ruling on the grounds that the court has misinterpreted the constitution

12

Little Rock Nine

Nine African Americans enrolled in Little Rock Central High School, but the Arkansas governor opposed integration and called upon the state National Guard to block them from entering the school; Eisenhower then had to send federal troops to protect the students

13

Civil Rights Act of 1957

Established the United States Civil Rights Commission which had the power to investigate violations of civil rights

14

How did Rosa Parks spark the Montgomery Bus Boycott?

She refused to give up her seat to a white passenger, causing her to get arrested; civil rights activists then called upon the black community to refuse to ride the buses as a way to express their opposition to Parks's arrest

15

Martin Luther King Jr.

Delivered a speech after the Montgomery Bus Boycott and was chosen as the MIA leader

16

How did the Southern Christian Leadership Conference(SCLC) fight segregation?

Established by MLK and Ralph Abernathy and advocated nonviolent resistance to fight injustice; held the Prayer Pilgrimage in Washington D.C. which helped convince Congress to pass civil rights legislation

17

What was the goal of the Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee?

Established by Ella Baker; goals were to create a grass-roots movement that involved all classes of African Americans in the struggle to defeat white racism and to obtain equality

18

What was the goal of the Freedom Rides?

1961 protest by activists who rode buses through southern states to test their compliance with the ban on segregation on interstate buses; they achieved their immediate goal of compelling a reluctant federal government to act; they also displayed that intimidation would not defeat the movement

19

Medgar Evans

Civil Rights activist who was instrumental in the effort to get the University of Mississippi to desegregate

20

"Bull" Connor and his impact on the Civil Rights Movement

Birmingham's Public Safety Commissioner who would no longer tolerate the protests; used police dogs and fire hoses on the protesters; caused Americans to call upon the president to act due to the harsh images they viewed from the event

21

The March on Washington

August 28, 1963 demonstration in which more than 200,000 people rallied for economic equality and civil rights

22

Civil Rights Act of 1964

Outlawed discrimination in public places and employment based on race, religion, or national origin

23

Freedom Summer

1964 effort to register African American voters in Mississippi

24

The Selma March

MLK and the SCLC organized a campaign to pressure the federal government to enact voting rights legislation; March 7, 1965 became known as Bloody Sunday when armed state troopers attacked the marchers

25

Voting Rights Act of 1965

Law that banned literacy tests and empowered the federal government to oversee voter registration

26

Twenty-Fourth Amendment

Constitutional amendment that banned poll tax as a voting requirement

27

Kerner Commission

Group set up to investigate the causes of race riots in American cities in the 1960s; also recommended establishing and expanding federal programs aimed at overcoming the problems of America's urban ghettos

28

Stokely Carmichael and Black Power

Movement in the 1960s that urged African Americans to use their collective political and economic power to gain equality

29

The Black Panthers

Organization of militant African Americans founded in 1966; organized armed patrols of urban neighborhoods to protect people from police abuse, created antipoverty programs, such as free breakfasts for poor children

30

Affirmative Action

Policy that gives special consideration to women and minorities to make up for past discrimination