The Integumentary System

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created 6 years ago by shadysmainlady
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Chapter 5
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1

Skin consists of 3 major regions

Epidermis - outer
Dermis - middle
Hypodermis (superficial fascia) - deepest

2

Epidermis is composed of

keratinized stratified squamous epithelium

3

Keratinized stratified squamous epithelium consists of

4 district cell types and 4-5 layers

4

4 types of epidermis cells

1. keratinocytes
2. melanocytes
3. langerhans'
4. merkel

5

merkel cells are...

touch receptors in association with sensory nerve ending

6

langerhans' cells are...

epidermal macrophages that help activate the immune system

7

melanocytes are...

producers of the brown pigment, melanin

8

excess melanin in one spot =

a freckle

9

keratinocytes

produce the fibrous protein keratin and are the abundant top layer of the epidermis

10

layers of the epidermis

basale
spinosum
granulosum
lucidum
corneum

11

stratum lucidum is a clear layer that is only found....

in thick skin (palms, fingers and feet)

12

stratum corneum is

the outer (horny) layer constantly being rubbed off

13

stratum basale layer is the _____ and is attached to the _________

deepest/dermis

14

how does the basale layer receive nourishment

via diffusion from the dermis

15

why is the basale layer also referred to as the germinativum layer?

because the cells in this layer are constantly undergoing rapid division

16

true/false
basale cells are small

false. basal cells are LARGE

17

statum spinosum (the prickly layer) recieves ______ from the dermis

nourishment

18

which 2 cells are abundant in the sinosum (prickly) layer?

melanin and langerhans'

19

why do the cells appear spiky in slides?

because their desmosomes hold tight while cells shrink back

20

the cells in which layer contain a weblike system of intermediate filaments attached to desmosomes?

the prickly (spinosum) layer

21

why do the upper portion of the granulosum layer die?

because the cells do not receive much nourishment from the dermis

22

true/false
the stratum granulosum is a thick layer

false. it's a thin layer

23

true/false
stratum lucidium is a dead layer

true

24

what's the other name for the horny layer?

stratum corneum

25

is the stratum corneum dead or alive?

dead

26

what are the 2 functions of the horny layer?

waterproofing + protection

27

which layer of the skin contains strong, flexible CT?

The dermis

28

the dermis contains blood supply and ___________

nerves

29

what is the dermis' relationship to the epidermis?

it keeps the epidermis alive

30

what types of cells are in the dermis?

fibroblasts, macrophages, mast cells and white blood cells

31

the dermis is composed of 2 layers, what are they called?

papillary (finger-like) and reticular (net-like)

32

what are the 3 pigments that make up skin color?

melanin, carotene and hemoglobin

33

what color is hemoglobin responsible for?

red

34

what color is carotene responsible for?

yellow/orange

35

what color is melanin responsible for?

yellow to reddish brown to black

36

what is happening when the skin is appearing blue?

cyanosis

37

why does cyanosis happen?

it occurs when there is low oxygen concentration

38

in darker skinned people how is cyanosis visable?

in mucous membranes and nail beds

39

when sebaceous glands are stimulated by hormones they...

soften skin

40

where are sebaceous glands not found?

on the hands and soles of the feet

41

what do sebaceous glands secrete?

sebum

42

what are the modified apocrine glands that are found in the lining of the external ear canal?

ceruminous glands

43

which glands are confined to the axillary (armpit) and anogenital regions?

apocrine glands

44

what are the sweat glands that are mainly found in the palms, soles of the feet and forehead?

eccrine glands

45

hairs (or pili) are flexible strands produced by

hair follicles