Central Nervous System Study Guide

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created 6 years ago by borderline
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CNS study guide
updated 6 years ago by borderline
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1

The largest part of the human brain is the (paired) _________.

cerebral hemispheres

2

The other major subdivisions of the brain are the _______ and the _________.

cerebellum, brain stem

3

The cavities found in the brain are called ______.

ventricles

4

Ventricles contain ______.

cerebrospinal fluid

5

A _______ is an elevated ridge of cerebral cortex tissue.

gyrus

6

The convolutions seen in the cerebrum are important because they increase the _________.

surface area

7

Gray matter is composed of ________.

unmyelated cell bodies

8

White matter is composed of _______.

myelinated cells

9

The lentiform nucleus, the caudate, and other nuclei are collectively called the _________.

basal ganglia

10

site of regulation of water balance and body temperature

hypothalamus

11

contains reflex centers involved in regulating respiratory rhythm in conjunction with lower brain-stem centers

pons

12

responsible for the regulation of posture and coordination of skeletal muscle movements

cerebellum

13

important relay station for afferent fibers traveling to the sensory cortex for interpretation

thalamus

14

contains autonomic centers which regulate blood pressure and respiratory rhythm, as well as coughing and sneezing centers

medulla oblogata

15

large fiber tract connecting the cerebral hemispheres

corpus callosum

16

connects the third and fourth ventricles

cerebral aqueduct

17

encloses the third ventricle

thalamus

18

forms the cerebrospinal fluid

choroid plexus

19

midbrain area that is largely fiber tracts; bulges anteriorly

cerebral penduncle

20

part of the limbic system; contains centers for may drives (rage, pleasure, hunger, sex, etc.)

hypothalamus

21

the primary sensory area of the cerebral hemisphere is found in the __________ gyrus

post central

22

cortical areas involved in audition are found in the __________ lobe

temporal

23

the primary motor area in the ______ lobe is involved in the initiation of voluntary movements

temporal

24

a specialized motor speech area located at the base of the precentral gyrus is called _______ area

Broca's area

25

the right cerebral hemisphere receives sensory input from the ______ side of the body

left

26

the __________ tract is the major descending voluntary motor tract.

corticospinal

27

damage to the ________ impairs consciousness and the awake/sleep cycles

reticular system

28

A ______ EEG is evidence of clinical death.

flat

29

Beta waves are recorded when an individual is awake and _________.

relaxed

30

outermost covering of the brain, composed of tough fibrous connective tissue

duramater

31

innermost covering of the brain; delicate and vascular

piamater

32

structures that return cerebrospinal fluid to the venous blood in the dural sinuses

arachnoid mater

33

middle meningeal layer; like a cobweb in structure

arachnoid mater

34

its outer layer forms the periosteum of the skull

duramater

35

slight and transient brain injury

concussion

36

traumatic injury that destroys brain tissue

contusion

37

total nonreponsiveness to stimulation

coma

38

may cause medulla oblongata to be wedged into foramen magnum by pressure of blood

intercranial hemorrhage

39

after head injury, retention of water by brain

cerebral edema

40

results when a brain region is deprived of blood or exposed to prolonged ischemia

cerbrovascular accident (CVA)

41

progressive degeneration of the brain with abnormal protein deposits

Alzheimer's disease

42

autoimmune disorder with extensive demyelination

multiple sclerosis

43

a mini-stroke; fleeting symptoms of a CVA

Transient ischemic attack (TIA)

44

the spinal cord extends from the ________ of the skull to the ________ region of the vertebral column.

base, lumbar

45

the procedure of withdrawing cerebrospinal fluid without damage to the spinal cord is called

spinal tap

46

______ pairs of spinal nerves

31

47

_______ pairs of cervical nerves

8

48

______ pairs of thoracic nerves

12

49

______ pairs of lumbar nerves

5

50

________ pairs sacral nerves

5

51

the tail like collection of spinal nerves at the inferior end of the spinal cord is called the

coccygeal

52

Neuron type found in the dorsal horn

association neurons

53

Neuron type found in the ventral horn

Efferent neurons

54

Neuron type in the dorsal root ganglion

Afferent neurons

55

Fiber type in the ventral root

Efferent neurons

56

Fiber type in the dorsal root

Afferent neurons

57

Fiber type in a spinal nerve

Both afferent and efferent neurons

58

Cranial nerve involved in shrugging the shoulders

Accessory Nerve (XI)

59

Cranial nerve involved in smelling a flower

Olfactory Nerve (I)

60

Cranial nerves involved in raising the eyelids and focusing the lens of the eye for accommodation; constriction of the eyepupils

Facial (VII) and Oculomotor(III)

61

Cranial nerve involved in slowing the heart; increasing the mobility of the digestive tract

Vagus Nerve (X)

62

Cranial nerve involved in smiling

Facial Nerve (VII)

63

Cranial nerve involved in chewing food

Trigeminal (V)

64

Cranial nerve involved in listening to music; seasickness

Vestibulococchlear (VIII)

65

Cranial nerve involved in the secretion of saliva; tasting well-seasoned food

Glossopharyngeal (IX)

66

Cranial nerves involved in "rolling" the eyes (number only)

II, III, IV

67

Cranial nerve involved feeling a toothache

Trigeminal (V)

68

Cranial nerve involved in reading a magazine of the study guide

Optic (II)

69

Cranial nerves involved in purely sensory (numbers only)

I, II, VIII

70

The ventral rami of spinal nerves C1 through T1 and L1 through S4 take part in forming __________ which serve the __________ of the body. The ventral rami of T1 through T12 run between the ribs to serve the _________. The posterior rami of the spinal nerves serve the ___________.

1) Plexus
2) motor and sensory needs
3) Intercostal nerves
4) skin and muscles of posterior body.