Central Nervous System Study Guide
The largest part of the human brain is the (paired) _________.
The other major subdivisions of the brain are the _______ and the _________.
cerebellum, brain stem
The cavities found in the brain are called ______.
Ventricles contain ______.
A _______ is an elevated ridge of cerebral cortex tissue.
The convolutions seen in the cerebrum are important because they increase the _________.
Gray matter is composed of ________.
unmyelated cell bodies
White matter is composed of _______.
The lentiform nucleus, the caudate, and other nuclei are collectively called the _________.
site of regulation of water balance and body temperature
contains reflex centers involved in regulating respiratory rhythm in conjunction with lower brain-stem centers
responsible for the regulation of posture and coordination of skeletal muscle movements
important relay station for afferent fibers traveling to the sensory cortex for interpretation
contains autonomic centers which regulate blood pressure and respiratory rhythm, as well as coughing and sneezing centers
large fiber tract connecting the cerebral hemispheres
connects the third and fourth ventricles
encloses the third ventricle
forms the cerebrospinal fluid
midbrain area that is largely fiber tracts; bulges anteriorly
part of the limbic system; contains centers for may drives (rage, pleasure, hunger, sex, etc.)
the primary sensory area of the cerebral hemisphere is found in the __________ gyrus
cortical areas involved in audition are found in the __________ lobe
the primary motor area in the ______ lobe is involved in the initiation of voluntary movements
a specialized motor speech area located at the base of the precentral gyrus is called _______ area
the right cerebral hemisphere receives sensory input from the ______ side of the body
the __________ tract is the major descending voluntary motor tract.
damage to the ________ impairs consciousness and the awake/sleep cycles
A ______ EEG is evidence of clinical death.
Beta waves are recorded when an individual is awake and _________.
outermost covering of the brain, composed of tough fibrous connective tissue
innermost covering of the brain; delicate and vascular
structures that return cerebrospinal fluid to the venous blood in the dural sinuses
middle meningeal layer; like a cobweb in structure
its outer layer forms the periosteum of the skull
slight and transient brain injury
traumatic injury that destroys brain tissue
total nonreponsiveness to stimulation
may cause medulla oblongata to be wedged into foramen magnum by pressure of blood
after head injury, retention of water by brain
results when a brain region is deprived of blood or exposed to prolonged ischemia
cerbrovascular accident (CVA)
progressive degeneration of the brain with abnormal protein deposits
autoimmune disorder with extensive demyelination
a mini-stroke; fleeting symptoms of a CVA
Transient ischemic attack (TIA)
the spinal cord extends from the ________ of the skull to the ________ region of the vertebral column.
the procedure of withdrawing cerebrospinal fluid without damage to the spinal cord is called
______ pairs of spinal nerves
_______ pairs of cervical nerves
______ pairs of thoracic nerves
______ pairs of lumbar nerves
________ pairs sacral nerves
the tail like collection of spinal nerves at the inferior end of the spinal cord is called the
Neuron type found in the dorsal horn
Neuron type found in the ventral horn
Neuron type in the dorsal root ganglion
Fiber type in the ventral root
Fiber type in the dorsal root
Fiber type in a spinal nerve
Both afferent and efferent neurons
Cranial nerve involved in shrugging the shoulders
Accessory Nerve (XI)
Cranial nerve involved in smelling a flower
Olfactory Nerve (I)
Cranial nerves involved in raising the eyelids and focusing the lens of the eye for accommodation; constriction of the eyepupils
Facial (VII) and Oculomotor(III)
Cranial nerve involved in slowing the heart; increasing the mobility of the digestive tract
Vagus Nerve (X)
Cranial nerve involved in smiling
Facial Nerve (VII)
Cranial nerve involved in chewing food
Cranial nerve involved in listening to music; seasickness
Cranial nerve involved in the secretion of saliva; tasting well-seasoned food
Cranial nerves involved in "rolling" the eyes (number only)
II, III, IV
Cranial nerve involved feeling a toothache
Cranial nerve involved in reading a magazine of the study guide
Cranial nerves involved in purely sensory (numbers only)
I, II, VIII
The ventral rami of spinal nerves C1 through T1 and L1 through S4 take part in forming __________ which serve the __________ of the body. The ventral rami of T1 through T12 run between the ribs to serve the _________. The posterior rami of the spinal nerves serve the ___________.
2) motor and sensory needs
3) Intercostal nerves
4) skin and muscles of posterior body.