chapter 20:the lymphatic system and lymphoid organs and tissues

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1

what returns fluids that have leaked from blood vascular system back to the blood?

lymphatic system

2

what three parts does the lymphatic system consists?

a meandering network of lymphatic vessles, lymph, the fluid contained in those vessels, and lympph nodes that cleanse the lymph at it passes throught them.

3

what provides the structural basis of the immune system?

lymphoid organs and tissues

4

once interstitial fluid enters a cell what is it called?

a lymph

5

where does the transport of the lymph begins?

lymphatic capillaries

6

what capillaries weave between the tissue cells and blood capillaries in loose connective tissue?

lymphatic capillaries

7

where are lymphatic capillaries absent from?

bones, teeth,bone marrow and the entire centeral nervous system.

8

are the endothelial cells forming the walls of lymphatic capillaries tightly joined?

no

9

what anchors the endothelial cells to surrounding structures so they can increase in interstitial fluid volume opening the minivalves, rather than causing lymphatic capillaries to collapse?

collgen filaments

10

what happen when the pressure in the interstitial fluid is greater than the pressure in the lymphatic capillary/

the minivalves will open

11

what happen when the pressure in the lymphatic capillary is greater than the interstitial fluid?

the minivalves will close

12

what is the special set of capillaries called that transport absorb fat from the small intestine to the blood stream?

lacteals

13

what is the fatty lymph called that drains from the fingerlike villi of the intestinal mucosa?

chyle

14

from the lymphatic capillaries , lymph flows through succesively larger and thicker walled channels- first collecting vessel then trunks, and finally the largest of all the ducts. this know by?

collecting lymphatic vessels

15

does the collecting lympathic vessel have all the same tunics as veins?

yes

16

the largest collecting unite and form what?

lymphatic trunks

17

what drains fairly large areas of the body?

lymphatic trunks

18

what are the major trunks?

lumbar, bronchomediastinal, subclavin, and jugular trunks, and single intestinal trunks

19

what are the two large ducts of the lymph?

right lymphatic duct, and thoraic duct

20

what duct drains lymph from the upper right lymph and the right side of the head and thorax?

right lymphatic duct

21

what duct receives lymph from the rest of the body?

thorax duct

22

what collects lymph from two large trunks that drain the lower limbs and from the intestinal trunks that drains the digestive organs?

cisterna chyli(enlarge sac) thorax

23

as the thoracic duct run superiorly, it receive drainage from where?

left side of the thorax, left upper limbs,and the left side of the head

24

where does each terminal duct empties?

into the venous circulation at the junction of the internal jugular vein.

25

like larger blood vessels, the larger lymphatics receive it nutrients blood supply from the?

vasa vasorum

26

what is the condition call when there are red visible lines on the side and they are unpleasant to touch?

lymphangitis

27

lymph transport is?

sporadic and slow

28

what are the main warriors of the immune system and arises in red bone marrow

lymphocytes

29

what are the two main varieties of lymphocytes?

T cells ( T lymphocytes) B cells ( B lymphocytes)

30

Active__ manage the immune responses, and some directly attacks and destroy infected cells

T cells

31

___ protects the body by producing plasma cells, daughters cells that secrete antibodies into the blood.

B Cells

32

what capture antigens and bring them back to the lymph nodes

dendrite cells

33

what play a crucial role in body protection and the immune response by phagocytizing foreign substances and helping to active T cells

macrophages

34

what is an important component of the immune system?

lymphoid tissue

35

why is lymphoid tissues an important component in the immune system?

it houses and provides proliferation site for lymphocytes and it furnishes an ideal surveillance vantage point for lymphocytes and macrophages

36

what type of lymphoid tissue is most lymphoid organs compose of?

reticular connective tissue

37

which lymphoid organ is not composed of reticular connective tissue?

thymus

38

a loose arrangement of lymphoid cells and some reticular fibers and is found in virtually every body organ.larger collection appear in the lamina propria of mucous membranes such as those lining the disgestive tract?

diffuse lymphoid tissue

39

__are solid, spherical bodies consisting of tightly packed lymphoid cells and reticular fibers.

lymphoid follicles

40

follices often haven lighter-staining___ where the proliferating___cells predominate

germinal centers and B cells

41

what centers can enlarge dramatically when B cells are dividing rapidly and producing plasma cells?

germinal centers

42

where does large clusters of lymph nodes occurs near the body surface in the?

inguinal, axillary, and cervical regions.

43

what is the two basic function of the lymph nodes?

filtration, and immune system activation

44

what is the structure of a lymph node?

they are surrounded by a dense fibrous capsule from which connective tissue strands called trabecule extend inward to divide the node into a number of compartments.

45

what are the two histologically regions of an lymph nodes?

the cortex and medulla

46

what does the superficial part of the cortex contains?

densely packed follicles, many with germinal centers heavy with dividing b cells

47

what is primary house for T cells in transit

deeper part of the cortex

48

what is the circulation of the lymph nodes?

afferent lymphatic vessels, subcapsular sinus, medullary sinuses and hilum

49

what is infected nodes known as?

buboes

50

the lymph nodes are the only to do what?

filters the lymph

51

what provides a site for lymphocytes proliferation and immune surveillance and response

spleen

52

what are some functions of the spleen/

stores some of the breakdown products of red blood cells for later reuse, stores blood platelets and monocytes for release into blood when need, may be a site or erythrocyte production in the fetus

53

what are the two components of the spleen?

white pulp and red pulp

54

where is the immune function taking place in the spleen?

white pulp

55

___is where worn out blood cells and bloodborne pathogens

red pulp

56

what contains huge numbers of erythrocytes and macrophages that engulf them?

red pulp

57

in the____T lymphocytes precursors mature to become immounocompetent lymphocytes?

thymus

58

most___ cells are lymphocytes

thymic

59

what are involved in the development of regulatory T cells, a class of T lymphocytes that are important from preventing autoimmune responses?

thymic corpuscles

60

how is the thymus different from other lymphoid organs?

thymus have no follicles because it lacks B cells and it is the only lymphoid organ that does not fight antigens

61

___ are a set of distributed lymphoid tissues located in mucous membranes through out the body

mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues (MALT)

62

what helps protects us from never ending on slaught of pathogens trying to enter our bodies

MALT

63

what are the largest collection of MALT?

TONSILS,PEYERS PATCHES, AND APPENDIX

64

the___paired are located on either side at the posterior end of the oral cavity

palatine tonsils

65

what are the largest tonsil and are likely to get infected?

palatine tonsils

66

The___ is collective term for a lumpy collection of lymphoid follicles at the bases of the tongue

lingual tonsil

67

___is refered to as adenoids if enlarged and they are located in the posterior wall of the nasopharynx

pharyngeal tonsils

68

___surround the opening of the quditory tubes into the pharynx

tube tonsils

69

what traps bacteria and particulated matter in the tonsils?

tonsillar crypts

70

___are larger clusters of lymphoid follicles structurally similar to tonsils

peyer's patches

71

the appendix is in the ideal position to?

destroy bacteria, and to generate many memory lymphocytes for long term memory

72

the two main connection of the jugular lymph sacs to the venous system are?

retained and become the right lymphatic duct and, on the left, the superior part of the thoraic duct.

73

all lymphoid organs develop from the mesodemal mesenchymal cells except the?

thymus

74

aggregates of lymphoid location in the wall of the ileum are?

peyer patches

75

what is the sequence best describe the flow of lymph through the lymphatic system.

capillaries, vessels, trunks,ducts

76

in addition to its lymphoid function, this organ holds reservior of platelets

spleen

77

what lymphatics structure absorbs excess tissue fluids.

capillary

78

what lymphatic structure trap bacteria in the posterior oral mucosa?

palatine tonsils

79

what is true about lymph nodes

they have fewer efferent vessels than afferent (incoming) vessels

80

all lymph is eventually return to the circulation to the?

subclavin vein