Which of the following are negative inotropic agents?
calcium channel blockers, acidosis, increased K+ ions
Which of the following are positive inotropic agents?
epinephrine, sympathetic ANS stimulation
Factors that tend to result in coronary artery disease:
cigarette smoking, obesity, diabetes, high blood pressure, high cholesterol levels
Which factors tend to increase the heart rate?
higher Ca++, hyperthyroidism, sympathetic stimulation
When looking at the anterior surface of the heart, the left side of that heart is on the viewer's right side.
The right ventricular wall is thicker than the left ventricular wall.
An inflammation of the pericardium in which pericardial fluid often collects is called acute pericarditis.
The presence of creatine kinase in the blood is an indicator of the degree of heart damage after an MI.
Hormones, such as epinephrine, are important in establishing the sequence pattern of the cardiac cycle.
Hormones, such as epinephrine, are important in modifying heart rate and the strength of heart contraction.
The main reason for a long plateau phase is that K+ channels open so that the K+ outflow matches the Ca++ inflow maintaining the period of depolarization.
A Holter monitor is used to detect brief ECG abnormalities that may occur over a 24 hour period.
The ECG pattern is the same regardless of the lead positions of the electrodes.
The ANS controls the opening of the atrial ventricular valves but not the semilunar valves of the heart.
The first heart sound heard using auscultation is the closing of the semilunar valves.
High afterload values in the left ventricle tends to result in pulmonary edema.
Higher afterload values decrease the stroke volume.
Inotropic agents are those that increase or decrease the strength of contraction of the heart at any given preload.
Oxygenated blood is found in the right ventricle.
The right atrium receives blood from the coronary sinus.
Chordae tendineae stabilize the bicuspid valve and prevent it from prolapsing.
Blood enters the systemic circuit of blood flow by passing through the pulmonary (pulmonic) valve.
The interventricular septum separates the ventricles from the atria.
In a mitral valve prolapse, a portion of the bicuspid valve protrudes into the left atrium.
The coronary artery carries blood to the right atrium.
Gap junctions in the intercalated disks allow action potentials to pass from one cardiac muscle cell to another.
Purkinje fibers transmit the action potential from the apex of the heart to the ventricles.
Cardiac muscle fibers produce much of their energy by way of anaerobic respiration.
Blood pressure is highest in the aorta during ventricular diastole.
Cardiac output is the volume of blood ejected from the left ventricle into the aorta each minute.
Baroreceptors monitor changes in blood chemistry.
Bradycardia is a condition in which the resting heart rate is greater than 80 beats per minute.
During fetal development, an opening called the foramen ovale allows blood in the right and left ventricles to mix.
time that ventricular contractile fibers are depolarized
P-Q or P-R interval
conduction time from the beginning of the atrial depolarization to beginning of ventricular excitation
time from the beginning of ventricular depolarization to end of repolarization
By comparison, cardiac muscle cells have (longer, shorter) contraction plateau time than skeletal muscle cells.
A person with a cardiac reserve ratio of around "1" has (good, bad) cardiac function.
A severe hemorrhage might be expected to (raise, lower) the preload volume of the heart.
Within the range of optimum sarcomere length, a (higher, lower) preload volume will increase the strength of ventricular
The right ventricular afterload is (higher, lower) than the left ventricular afterload.
Norepinephrine binds to the beta 1 receptors that (enhance, depress) calcium entry into the voltage-gated calcium channels of the
Without outside influences, the spontaneous depolarizing rate of the SA node is (100, 75) per minute.
Cutting the vagus nerve would be expected to (increase, decrease) the resting heart rate.
The maximum heart rate for a 50-year old man would calculate out to be (150, 170) beats per minute.
Regular aerobic exercise for at least 20 minutes, 3-5 times a week (increases, decreases) the resting heart rate over time.
______ are interconnections of blood vessels that provide for collateral circuits of blood flow.
______ is the narrowing of a heart valve opening.