Anatomy Chapter 18 Study Guide

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1

Which of the following are negative inotropic agents?

calcium channel blockers, acidosis, increased K+ ions

2

Which of the following are positive inotropic agents?

epinephrine, sympathetic ANS stimulation

3

Factors that tend to result in coronary artery disease:

cigarette smoking, obesity, diabetes, high blood pressure, high cholesterol levels

4

Which factors tend to increase the heart rate?

higher Ca++, hyperthyroidism, sympathetic stimulation

5

When looking at the anterior surface of the heart, the left side of that heart is on the viewer's right side.

True

6

The right ventricular wall is thicker than the left ventricular wall.

False

7

An inflammation of the pericardium in which pericardial fluid often collects is called acute pericarditis.

False

8

The presence of creatine kinase in the blood is an indicator of the degree of heart damage after an MI.

True

9

Hormones, such as epinephrine, are important in establishing the sequence pattern of the cardiac cycle.

False

10

Hormones, such as epinephrine, are important in modifying heart rate and the strength of heart contraction.

True

11

The main reason for a long plateau phase is that K+ channels open so that the K+ outflow matches the Ca++ inflow maintaining the period of depolarization.

False

12

A Holter monitor is used to detect brief ECG abnormalities that may occur over a 24 hour period.

True

13

The ECG pattern is the same regardless of the lead positions of the electrodes.

False

14

The ANS controls the opening of the atrial ventricular valves but not the semilunar valves of the heart.

False

15

The first heart sound heard using auscultation is the closing of the semilunar valves.

False

16

High afterload values in the left ventricle tends to result in pulmonary edema.

True

17

Higher afterload values decrease the stroke volume.

True

18

Inotropic agents are those that increase or decrease the strength of contraction of the heart at any given preload.

True

19

Oxygenated blood is found in the right ventricle.

False

20

The right atrium receives blood from the coronary sinus.

True

21

Chordae tendineae stabilize the bicuspid valve and prevent it from prolapsing.

True

22

Blood enters the systemic circuit of blood flow by passing through the pulmonary (pulmonic) valve.

False

23

The interventricular septum separates the ventricles from the atria.

False

24

In a mitral valve prolapse, a portion of the bicuspid valve protrudes into the left atrium.

True

25

The coronary artery carries blood to the right atrium.

False

26

Gap junctions in the intercalated disks allow action potentials to pass from one cardiac muscle cell to another.

True

27

Purkinje fibers transmit the action potential from the apex of the heart to the ventricles.

True

28

Cardiac muscle fibers produce much of their energy by way of anaerobic respiration.

False

29

Blood pressure is highest in the aorta during ventricular diastole.

False

30

Cardiac output is the volume of blood ejected from the left ventricle into the aorta each minute.

True

31

Baroreceptors monitor changes in blood chemistry.

False

32

Bradycardia is a condition in which the resting heart rate is greater than 80 beats per minute.

False

33

During fetal development, an opening called the foramen ovale allows blood in the right and left ventricles to mix.

False

34

S-T Segment

time that ventricular contractile fibers are depolarized

35

P Wave

Atrial depolarization

36

QRS Complex

Ventricular depolarization

37

P-Q or P-R interval

conduction time from the beginning of the atrial depolarization to beginning of ventricular excitation

38

T Wave

Ventricular repolarization

39

Q-T Interval

time from the beginning of ventricular depolarization to end of repolarization

40

By comparison, cardiac muscle cells have (longer, shorter) contraction plateau time than skeletal muscle cells.

longer

41

A person with a cardiac reserve ratio of around "1" has (good, bad) cardiac function.

bad

42

A severe hemorrhage might be expected to (raise, lower) the preload volume of the heart.

lower

43

Within the range of optimum sarcomere length, a (higher, lower) preload volume will increase the strength of ventricular
contraction.

higher

44

The right ventricular afterload is (higher, lower) than the left ventricular afterload.

lower

45

Norepinephrine binds to the beta 1 receptors that (enhance, depress) calcium entry into the voltage-gated calcium channels of the
myocardial fibers.

enhance

46

Without outside influences, the spontaneous depolarizing rate of the SA node is (100, 75) per minute.

100

47

Cutting the vagus nerve would be expected to (increase, decrease) the resting heart rate.

increase

48

The maximum heart rate for a 50-year old man would calculate out to be (150, 170) beats per minute.

170

49

Regular aerobic exercise for at least 20 minutes, 3-5 times a week (increases, decreases) the resting heart rate over time.

decreases

50

______ are interconnections of blood vessels that provide for collateral circuits of blood flow.

anastomses

51

______ is the narrowing of a heart valve opening.

stenosis