How much does the skin weigh?
What percent of body weight is the skin?
The surface area of skin is ________ sq. meters.
4 to 5 kilograms = 9 to 11 lbs.
1.2 to 2.2
What region of the skin is composed of epithelial cells and is the outermost protective shield?
What layer of the skin is also called the superficial fascia?
What makes up the bulk of the skin?
What are the two distinct regions of the skin?
Epidermis and Dermis
What is the only region that is vascularized?
Which region of the skin thickens markedly when a person gains weight, and why?
Hypodermis, because it is composed mostly of adipose tissue
True or False:
The epidermis is keratinized stratified squamous epithelium.
What are the four distinct cell types of the epidermis?
What are the fibrous proteins that help give the epidermis its protective properties?
What is the thickening of the epidermis?
True or False:
Millions of dead keratinocytes rub off every day, giving us a totally new epidermis every 365 days.
False. Every 25 to 45 days.
What is found in the deepest layer of the epidermis?
What are membrane-bound granules that melanin accumulates in?
What helps protect from UV radiation in sunlight?
What are also called langerhans cells?
What ingests foreign substances and are key activators of our immune system?
Merkel cells are also called ________ cells.
Each tactile cell is intimately associated with a disk-like sensory nerve ending. This combination called a _______ disk, or ________ disk, functions as a sensory receptor for touch.
What are the four main layers of the epidermis?
In thick skin, there is also a fifth layer, called ________.
Where is the thickest skin in the body?
What is the alternate name for stratum basale?
10 - 25% of the stratum basale are ________.
How many cell layers are in the stratum granulosum?
The process in which protein cells fill with keratin is called ________.
What two granules are made in the stratum granulosum?
Where is the stratum lucidum located?
Just above the stratum granulosum
What are cable-like parrallel arrays of intermediate filaments?
Three quarters of the epithelial thickness is the ________ layer, also called the ________ layer.
The shingle-like shell remnants of the stratum corneum are referred to as ________ or ________ cells. (Dandruff)
The average person sheds ________ dead skin cells every minute, and ________ pounds of these skin flakes in a lifetime.
The skin region that is strong, flexible, connective tissue is the ________.
What part of the skin of animals is used to make leather?
What are the two layers of the dermis?
True or False:
The papillary layer is thinner than the reticular layer.
What are peglike projections from the papillary layer surface?
What are free nerve endings and touch receptors called?
Tactile or Meissner's corpuscle
In thick skin, papillae lie atop larger mounds called ________, which cause the overlying epidermis to form ________.
________ enhance the gripping ability of fingers, hands, and feet.
The papillary layer is _______ connective tissue, while the reticular layer is ________ connective tissue.
The network of blood vessels that nourishes the reticular layer?
What lines are important to surgeons because incisions made parallel to these lines makes the skin gape less and heal easier?
What are dermal folds that occur at or near joints?
What three pigments contribute to skin color?
Which pigment is made in the skin?
Two forms of melanin range in color from _____ _____ to _____ _____.
Differences in skin color reflect the kind and amount of ________ made and retained.
What are local accumulations of melanin called?
Freckles and Moles
What causes the appearance of leathery skin?
Clumped elastic fibers due to excessive sun exposure
True or False:
Sunspots are not caused by the sun, but by a fungus infection.
What is a yellow to orange pigment found in certain plant products such as carrots?
What is the oxygenated pigment in the red blood cells?
Blue appearance of the skin due to poor oxygenation is called ________.
Reddened skin caused by fever, inflammation, allergy, etc. is called ________.
Yellowing of the skin due to liver problems:
________ of the skin occurs during fear, anger, and certain other types of emotional stress.
________ reveal where blood escaped and is clotted beneath the skin.