Human Anatomy & Physiology: Chapter 5 The Skin Flashcards


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1

How much does the skin weigh?
What percent of body weight is the skin?
The surface area of skin is ________ sq. meters.

4 to 5 kilograms = 9 to 11 lbs.
7%
1.2 to 2.2

2

What region of the skin is composed of epithelial cells and is the outermost protective shield?

Epidermis

3

What layer of the skin is also called the superficial fascia?

Hypodermis

4

What makes up the bulk of the skin?

Dermis

5

What are the two distinct regions of the skin?

Epidermis and Dermis

6

What is the only region that is vascularized?

The dermis

7

Which region of the skin thickens markedly when a person gains weight, and why?

Hypodermis, because it is composed mostly of adipose tissue

8

True or False:
The epidermis is keratinized stratified squamous epithelium.

True

9

What are the four distinct cell types of the epidermis?

Keratinocytes
Melanocytes
Dendritic cells
Tactile cells

10

What are the fibrous proteins that help give the epidermis its protective properties?

Keratin

11

What is the thickening of the epidermis?

Callus

12

True or False:
Millions of dead keratinocytes rub off every day, giving us a totally new epidermis every 365 days.

False. Every 25 to 45 days.

13

What is found in the deepest layer of the epidermis?

Melanocytes

14

What are membrane-bound granules that melanin accumulates in?

Melanosomes

15

What helps protect from UV radiation in sunlight?

Melanin

16

What are also called langerhans cells?

Dendritic cells

17

What ingests foreign substances and are key activators of our immune system?

Dendritic cells

18

Merkel cells are also called ________ cells.

Tactile

19

Each tactile cell is intimately associated with a disk-like sensory nerve ending. This combination called a _______ disk, or ________ disk, functions as a sensory receptor for touch.

Tactile...
Merkel

20

What are the four main layers of the epidermis?

Stratum corneum
Stratum granulosum
Stratum spinosum
Stratum basale

21

In thick skin, there is also a fifth layer, called ________.

Lucidum

22

Where is the thickest skin in the body?

Upper back

23

What is the alternate name for stratum basale?

Stratum germinativum

24

10 - 25% of the stratum basale are ________.

Melanocytes

25

How many cell layers are in the stratum granulosum?

4-6

26

The process in which protein cells fill with keratin is called ________.

Keratinization

27

What two granules are made in the stratum granulosum?

Keratohyaline
Lamellar

28

Where is the stratum lucidum located?

Just above the stratum granulosum

29

What are cable-like parrallel arrays of intermediate filaments?

Tonofilaments

30

Three quarters of the epithelial thickness is the ________ layer, also called the ________ layer.

Stratum corneum...
Horny

31

The shingle-like shell remnants of the stratum corneum are referred to as ________ or ________ cells. (Dandruff)

Cornified...
Horny

32

The average person sheds ________ dead skin cells every minute, and ________ pounds of these skin flakes in a lifetime.

50,000...
40 pounds

33

The skin region that is strong, flexible, connective tissue is the ________.

Dermis

34

What part of the skin of animals is used to make leather?

Dermis

35

What are the two layers of the dermis?

Reticular
Papillary

36

True or False:
The papillary layer is thinner than the reticular layer.

True

37

What are peglike projections from the papillary layer surface?

Dermal papillae

38

What are free nerve endings and touch receptors called?

Tactile or Meissner's corpuscle

39

In thick skin, papillae lie atop larger mounds called ________, which cause the overlying epidermis to form ________.

Dermal ridges...
Epidermal ridges

40

________ enhance the gripping ability of fingers, hands, and feet.

Friction ridges

41

The papillary layer is _______ connective tissue, while the reticular layer is ________ connective tissue.

Areolar...
Dense fibrous

42

The network of blood vessels that nourishes the reticular layer?

Cutaneous plexus

43

What lines are important to surgeons because incisions made parallel to these lines makes the skin gape less and heal easier?

Cleavage lines

44

What are dermal folds that occur at or near joints?

Flexure lines

45

What three pigments contribute to skin color?

Melanin
Carotene
Hemoglobin

46

Which pigment is made in the skin?

Melanin

47

Two forms of melanin range in color from _____ _____ to _____ _____.

Reddish yellow...
Brownish black

48

Differences in skin color reflect the kind and amount of ________ made and retained.

Melanin

49

What are local accumulations of melanin called?

Freckles and Moles

50

What causes the appearance of leathery skin?

Clumped elastic fibers due to excessive sun exposure

51

True or False:
Sunspots are not caused by the sun, but by a fungus infection.

True

52

What is a yellow to orange pigment found in certain plant products such as carrots?

Carotene

53

What is the oxygenated pigment in the red blood cells?

Hemoglobin

54

Blue appearance of the skin due to poor oxygenation is called ________.

Cyanosis

55

Reddened skin caused by fever, inflammation, allergy, etc. is called ________.

Erythema

56

Yellowing of the skin due to liver problems:

Jaundice

57

________ of the skin occurs during fear, anger, and certain other types of emotional stress.

Blanching

58

________ reveal where blood escaped and is clotted beneath the skin.

Bruises