Mircobiology exam 1,2,4 vocabs and concepts
protons, neutrons, electrons, atomic number, atomic mass, isotopes
attractive forces between atoms.
three types of bonds
ionic, covalent and hydrogen
electrical attraction between two oppositely charged ions
formed when atoms share pairs of electron to fill valence shell.
atoms ability to attract electrons
low= H, C
polar covalent bond
atoms unequally share electrons, one member carries slight positive charge, one member carries slight negative charge
non polar covalent bond
atoms equally share electrons. Charge evenly distributed.
hydrogen involved in a polar covalent bond carries a partial + charge. The hydrogen may also be attracted to other molecules carrying a partial - charge, forming hydrogen bond.
london dispersion forces
lipids- hydrophobic interaction
Substance in the cell (is water attractive to the substance?) YES
hydrophilic (water loving)
eg. ionized, polar, covalent bond molecule.
Substance in the cell (is water attractive to the substance? NO
hydrophobic (water fearing)
H+ and OH participate in chemical reaction.
R-R + H2O --> R-OH+H-R
-act as temperature buffers (requires kinetic energy to break down H2O)
-cohesion/adhesion (plays important role, H bonds)
increase hydrogen ion concentration (high H+ = low pH)
decreased hydrogen ion concentraton (low H+ = high pH)
why is carbon important?
makes double bonds.