Mircobiology exam 1,2,4 vocabs and concepts

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Microbiology
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College: Third year
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1

subatomic particle

atoms>molecules>cellular structure>cells

2

atomic subunits

protons, neutrons, electrons, atomic number, atomic mass, isotopes

3

chemical bonds

attractive forces between atoms.

4

three types of bonds

ionic, covalent and hydrogen

5

ionic bonds

electrical attraction between two oppositely charged ions

6

covalent bonds

formed when atoms share pairs of electron to fill valence shell.

7

electronegativity

atoms ability to attract electrons

low= H, C
high=O

8

polar covalent bond

atoms unequally share electrons, one member carries slight positive charge, one member carries slight negative charge

O-H
N-H
O=C
O=P
N-C

9

non polar covalent bond

atoms equally share electrons. Charge evenly distributed.

C-H
H-H
O=O
N=N
C-C

10

Hydrogen bonds

hydrogen involved in a polar covalent bond carries a partial + charge. The hydrogen may also be attracted to other molecules carrying a partial - charge, forming hydrogen bond.

11

london dispersion forces

lipids- hydrophobic interaction

12

Substance in the cell (is water attractive to the substance?) YES

hydrophilic (water loving)

eg. ionized, polar, covalent bond molecule.

13

Substance in the cell (is water attractive to the substance? NO

hydrophobic (water fearing)

eg. non-polar

14

hydrolysis

H+ and OH participate in chemical reaction.

R-R + H2O --> R-OH+H-R

15

water

-act as temperature buffers (requires kinetic energy to break down H2O)
-surface tension
-cohesion/adhesion (plays important role, H bonds)

16

acid

increase hydrogen ion concentration (high H+ = low pH)

17

bases

decreased hydrogen ion concentraton (low H+ = high pH)

18

why is carbon important?

makes double bonds.

19

amino acid

H2N