Chapter 10

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Tecumseh (ANDERSON)

He was a charismatic Indian leader that worked hard at unifying Indian tribes in America's Northwest Territory against American expansion. His efforts culminated in the Battle of Tippecanoe in late 1811, where he suffered sound defeat. No Indian leader after him was near able to achieve the unity against Americans that he was.

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Tenskwatawa (VEERAMANI)

Tenskwatawa, unlike his "Shooting Star" older bro, usually "led an embittered life of idleness and drink". However, he had a near-death experience in 1805, but during that experience he met the Master of Life and proclaimed himself the Prophet. He convinced other Native American tribes that whites were Children of the Evil Spirit and built Prophetstown with Shooting Star in present day Indiana.

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Thomas Jefferson (ANDERSON)

He was elected president in both the 1800 and 1804 elections. Though his first term had highlights such as the Louisiana Purchase and effectively reducing the national debt, his second term was plagued by British/American tensions. He oversaw the disastrous embargo of 1807, which completely stalled trade between Britain and America and caused severe economic repercussions and complaints among the citizenry.

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Aaron Burr (VEERAMANI)

Aaron Burr was Jefferson's running mate in the 1800 election. The election was finally narrowed down to two candidates - Burr and Jefferson - who were both Republicans. Burr did not yield the victory to Jefferson, so the outcome of the election was decided in the House of Representatives.

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John Marshall (VEERAMANI)

Marshall was appointed by John Adams (Jefferson's predecessor) on the Supreme Court as one of the Midnight Judges. He became the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court and presided over the Marbury vs. Madison trial. He also solidified the concept of judicial review.

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Lewis and Clark (ANDERSON)

They were the leaders of an expedition to explore the western expanses of the US. Following the Louisiana Purchase in 1803, President Jefferson sent them to explore the new territory. The expedition served military, scientific, and political purposes: advantageous potential sites for forts were scouted out, specimens were retrieved and examined, and the peaceful appearance of the exploring party (they had with them a young Indian mother, Sacajawea) did not excite antagonism in Indians; rather, they allowed the expedition to pass peacefully through their lands.

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Sacajawea (ANDERSON)

She was an invaluable addition to the Lewis and Clark expedition. Kidnapped from her native Shoshoni tribe by the Mandan Indians, she knew many languages and was an effective translator. She was also a mother, and this gave the expedition a peaceful appearance to other Indians, who treated the explorers cordially.

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William Henry Harrison (VEERAMANI)

Harrison was the territorial governor of Indiana. He was famous for his attack on Tippecanoe, in which he fought in Prophetstown. The Native Americans fighting fled the town and Harrison's forces ultimately burned it down.

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Henry Clay (VEERAMANI)

Henry was part of a group in Congress informally referred to as the War Hawks. This group supported war with Great Britain and cheered Harrison's "victory" at Tippecanoe. Clay was elected Speaker of the House, which was almost unheard of, as he was new to the Congress.

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John C. Calhoun (ANDERSON)

He, along with Henry Clay, was the leader of a group in the Twelfth Congress known as War Hawks. He promoted declaring war against Britain to atone for the many injustices he felt had come from that quarter.

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Andrew Jackson (BHATIA)

Andrew Jackson was the Seventh President of the US. After the War of 1812, he invaded Florida to stop Native American rebellion. He is also known for defeating a British force that invaded in New Orleans. He had a popular president because of his image.

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Emma Willard (VEERAMANI)

founded the Troy Female Seminary in New York; made the argument that female teachers are better than male teachers.

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Catharine Beecher (ANDERSON)

She founded the Hartford Seminary in Connecticut in 1822. This seminary was one of the two most eminent educational facilities for women in the early 1800s, and its programs rivaled those of celebrated men's institutions such as Harvard. The Hartford Seminary specifically trained women for teaching, a post which Beecher (among others) thought women were better suited to than men.

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James Monroe (BHATIA)

Fifth President of the United States. Led the "Era of Good Feelings" which marked the decline of the Federalist Party. Created the Monroe Doctrine. Under him, the Nation identity grew.

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John Q. Adams (BHATIA)

Sixth President and was affiliated with the National Republicans. Under him, internal improvements were made such as Native American affairs.

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Gabriel’s Rebellion (BHATIA)

An old blacksmith, slave of Thomas Prossor planned a revolution of slaves against their masters in Virginia. Gabriel had planed to have slaves march on Richmond and supposedly take James Monroe hostage.

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Marbury v. Madison (BHATIA)

Marbury, who had been appointed Justice of peace under President Adams had not received his commission after Adams's appointment of the midnight judges. However, when Madison became president, Jefferson was made Secretary of State. Thus, Marbury sued him. Chief Justice John Marshall decided that the way Marbury had redeemed this position was unconstitutional as the Supreme court had been given powers beyond the Constitution permitted. This led to the decision judicial review which allowed courts to declare statues unconstitutional.

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Louisiana Purchase (BHATIA)

Louisiana Purchase was the property west that belonged to France. It was bought for 15 million dollars. Jefferson was concerned about the justification for the purpose. However, the power of treaty-making justified it. This purchase helped expand the borders of the US.

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Impressment (BHATIA)

Sailors that are taken by force onto a British ship as a result of the seizure of American ships. The punishments and treatment of these soldiers were usually so harsh that some sailors would seek refuge on American ships.

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Embargo of 1807 (BHATIA)

This embargo that was declared by Jefferson stopped all trade with the United States and other nations. It shut down all ports on the Eastern Seaboard putting America at an economic standstill.

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Battle of Tippecanoe (BHATIA)

General Harrison invades Prophets town on Tippecanoe River while Tecumseh was gone. The town was set on fire and Indians, terrorized, fled out of the town.

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War of 1812 (BHATIA)

Indian conflicts with the United States in the old Northwest Territory that evolved into a greater battle with Britain which was supported by the War Hawks.

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War Hawks (BHATIA)

The supporters of the War of 1812 who openly called for war with Great Britain.

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Creek War (BHATIA)

The uprising of the Creek Indians against the American militia. Creek War ends after the battle of Horseshoe Bend where General Andrew Jackson led 2500 Tennessee militia men and killed 550 Indians.

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Battle of New Orleans (BHATIA)

The Battle of New Orleans was led by Andrew Jackson against the British who had arrived in lower Louisiana. Jackson's forces were ready outside New Orleans to stop the attack. This battle made Jackson a famous war hero.

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Treaty of Ghent (BHATIA)

Treaty of Ghent was the treaty signed 2 weeks prior the the battle of New Orleans that was supposed to solve the issues so that neither Britain nor America would fight. However, This treaty didn't solve many issues that led to the war.

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Hartford Convention (BHATIA)

A meeting held by New England to curb Southern power. Suggested ideas were abolishing the 3/5ths clause, and other small adjustments to stop the representation or access to the government by the South.

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Female academies and seminaries (BHATIA)

The female academies were rigorous schools for girls that offered excellent academic programs for girls. These seminaries were the first initiative for women to have more advanced education.

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Era of Good Feelings (BHATIA)

The Era of Good feelings was the time under President Monroe in which one party government was supposed to be harmonious. However it didn't last for long as the party began to find differences and separated.

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Tallmadge Amendment (BHATIA)

Two amendments made by James Tallmadge Jr. about the Missouri Compromise. The first being that any slave born in Missouri after statehood would be free at the age of 25. The second being that no new slaves were to be imported to Missouri.

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Missouri Compromise (BHATIA)

The Missouri compromise was the issue in the Monroe administration of whether or not to give Missouri statehood and it's slave policies.

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Monroe Doctrine (BHATIA)

The doctrine created by President Monroe stating that any European involvement in American affairs would be considered a threat to the US.