Egan's Fundamentals of Respiratory Care: Midterm Review RES1010 Flashcards
Aerosol medications are
Water vaporized with medications to be inhaled
Airway Management is
Use of various techniques and devices to establish or maintain a functional air passageway
Cardiopulmonary System is
The combination of cardiac and pulmonary systems. ie: The heart and lungs
What is CoARC
The committee on accreditation for respiratory care. This committee accredits schools programs on respiratory care.
What does NBRC stand for
The national board of respiratory care. This board administers the testing to become certified and registered respiratory therapists.
What is Oxygen Therapy
The abilities to deliver oxygen to people who are having oxygen deficiencies.
What are PFT's
Pulmonary function tests, wide range of diagnostic procedures to measure and evaluate lung functioning.
What is respiratory care?
Health care discipline that specializes in the promotion of optimal cardiopulmonary function and health.
What are respiratory care practitioners
Health care professionals who are educated and trained to provide respiratory care to patients.
What are RT's
Apply scientific principles to prevent, identify and treat acute or chronic dysfunction of the cardiopulmonary system.
What is mechanical ventilation
the use of mechanical devices to provide ventilator support for patients.
What is the Joint Commission?
A private non-governing agency that establishes guidelines for the operation of hospitals and other health care facilities, conducts accreditation programs, surveys, and encourages the attainment of high standards of institutional medical care.
What are respiratory care protocols
Specification of actions that allows respiratory care practitioners to initiate and adjust therapy independently, within guidelines previously established by the medical staff.
What are the three states of matter
Solid, Liquid, and Gases. Solids have a fixed volume and shape, they have strong mutual forces between atoms. Liquids have a fixed volume but adapt to the shape of their container. Atoms have less mutual attraction to each other. Gases molecular forces are very weak. They are easily compressed and expanded. They have no fixed volume or shape.
What is absolute humidity
The actual mass or content of water in a measured volume of air, usually expressed in grams per cubic meter or pounds.
what is adhesion
band of scar tissue that binds anatomic surfaces that are normally separate from each other.
What are ATP's
Ambient Temperature Pressure Saturated. A correction factor
What is Cohesion
Attractive forces between like molecules.
what is condensation
change of a state from gas to liquid. As with water vapor condensation.
What is conduction
the transfer of heat by the direct interaction of atoms or molecules in a hot area that contact atoms or molecules in a cooler area.
what is critical temp
the highest temperature at which a substance can exist as a liquid, regardless of the pressure.
what is Dalton's Law
law stating that the total pressure exerted by a mixture of gases is equal to the sum of the pressure exerted by the individual gases if they were present alone in the container.
What is flow resistance
the difference in pressure between the two points along a tube divided by the actual flow.
what is fluid entrainment
use of the Bernoulli effect to draw a second fluid into a stream of flow. A vacuum effect.
what is kinetic energy
the energy of motion or movement.
what is laminar flow
a fluid moving in discrete cylindrical layers or streamlines through a tube.
What is the law of thermodynamics
laws that describe the relation between temperature and the kinetics of matter changing it's state. Energy can not be created or destroyed. the conservation of energy
what is melting point
temperature at which the solid and liquid forms of a substance are in equilibrium.
what is radiation
heat transfer without direct contact.
what is relative humidity
a gas that is not fully saturated, the ratio of it's actual water vapor content to it's saturated capacity at a given temperature.
what is surface tension
the tendency of a liquid to minimize the area of it's surface by contracting. This property causes liquids to rise in a capillary tube, effects the exchange of gases in the pulmonary alveoli, and alters the ability of various liquids to wet another surface.
what is thermal conductivity
measure of heat. four methods of heat transfer, conduction, convection, radiation, and evaporation.
What is turbulent flow
Fluid molecules forming irregular eddy currents in a chaotic pattern.
what is vaporization
is the change of state from liquid to gas. vaporization requires heat energy.
what is viscosity
is the force opposing a fluids flow.
what is water vapor pressure
the pressure exerted by water in it's gaseous state.
what is capillary action
a phenomenon in which a liquid in a small tube moves upward against gravity. Capillary action involves both adhesion and surface tension forces.
what are the gas laws
Charles, Daltons, Gay-Lussac, Bernoullis, Pousielles
does water vapor exert pressure
what is BTPS
Body Temperature Pressure Saturated
What is a Venturi Tube
a modified entrainment device which widens just after it's jet or nozzle, helps restore fluid pressure. Provides greater entrainment.
What is a Pitot Tube
Tube that restores fluid velocity, lessens the effect of downstream pressure on fluid entrainment.
how to convert Celsius to Fahrenheit
9/5(temperature in Celsius)+32
how to convert Fahrenheit to Celsius
9/5(temperature in Fahrenheit-32)
what is absolute zero
the lowest possible temperature that can be achieved.
what is boiling point
the temperature at which it's vapor pressure exceeds it's atmospheric pressure.
What are state changes
melting, freezing and sublimation. Melting: the changeover from a solid to a liquid state, Freezing: The changeover from a liquid to a solid due to extreme cold temperatures. Sublimation: Transition from a solid to a gaseous state without becoming a liquid first. This occurs because the vapor pressure is low enough for the intermediate liquid not to appear. Dry Ice is an example of sublimation.
What is temperature
the measurement of heat. The collision of molecules.
What is solubility of gases
(Henry's Law) Volume of gas dissolved in a liquid is a function of it's solubility coefficient and it's partial pressure.
What is fluid dynamics
study of fluids in motion
what is epp
equal pressure point
what is a normal minute ventilation
characteristics of acids
compound that can donate H+ ions
one goes up one goes down
characteristics of bases
compound that donate OH- (NaOH)
substances that are capable of inactivating acids.
A substance with more H+ ions or less OH- is acidic or Alkaline
A substance with less H+ ions or more OH- is acidic or alkaline
Sodium's normal range is _______ and is most important in extracellular action.
Electrolytes maintain the internal or external environment, facilitating chemical & physiologic events.
Chloride is a anion and it's normal range is _____, and it's the body's most prominent anion.
Bicarbonate is a anion. it's normal range is ______, HCO3 is part of buffering and is reabsorbed by the kidneys. In acidosis kidneys retain HCO3 to buffer extra acid.
Potassium normal range is _____. Main intracellular cation 98% found in cells. In acidosis, excess H+ is exchanged for K+. Alkalosis results in the exact opposite reaction.
Calcium normal range is
Exhalation is __________. relaxation of muscles
Ventilation is ________ inspiration and expiration
Trans Respiratory Pressure is
Gradient that causes gas flow in and out of the lungs. Prs= Palv-P(bs or ao)
Trans pulmonary pressure
keeps alveoli open. surfactant plays role in this
characteristic of strecthability.
How well an object recoils or returns to it's original shape after being stretched or damaged in someway
reduces surface tension. surfactant stabilizes alveoli by preventing collapse.
Total measurement of all forces combined. Total gas flow.
Physiological dead space is
anatomic and alveolar dead space combined
Hyperventilation occurs when
the PaCO2 is less that (<) 35mmHg more CO2 is being blown off than is being produced.
Hypoventilation occurs when
the PaCO2 is more that (>) 45mmHg less CO2 is being blown off than is being produced.
Alveolar Dead Space is
Dead space in alveoli. Air that is ventilated but not profused. Gas is not being exchanged.
Anatomic Dead Space is
Air that is in the conductive zone that does not reach the alveoli. This air is not reaching the alveoli.
What is Tidal Volume (Vt)
a normal breath in or out. normal is 5-7mL/kg around 500mL. minute ventilation divided by the respiratory rate.
Alveolar Ventilation formula
(Tidal volume - Dead space ventilation) or minute alveolar dead space divided by the respiratory rate
Minute Ventilation formula
Vt x RR
(tidal volume times respiratory rate)
Dead space ventilation (Vd) is
2.2mL x kg
(2.2mL times patients weight in kilograms) or minute dead space divided by the respiratory rate.
Minute Dead Space formula
Vd x RR
(dead space ventilation times respiratory rate)
Minute Alveolar Dead Space
Va x RR or minute ventilation minus minute dead space
(alveolar ventilation times respiratory rate)