Sensory Disorders

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created 8 years ago by jenkarmata
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Block II Nursing 122 2014
updated 8 years ago by jenkarmata
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1

Astigmatism

A condition caused by differences in the curvature of the cornea & lens

2

Diplopia

Double vision

3

Evisceraaton

Removal of the intraocular contents through a corneal or scleral incision.

4

Hyperopia

Farsightedness

5

Myopia

Nearsightedness

6

Nystagmus

Involuntary oscillation of the eyeball

7

Photophobia

Ocular pain due to exposure to light

8

Ptosis

Drooping eyelid

9

Strabismus

Deviation from perfect ocular alignment

10

What is Glaucoma

Optical nerve damage related to increased intraocular pressure (IOP)

11

Glaucoma

Prevalent in adults >40, men and African americans

12

Glaucoma risk factors (there are 7)

1. Family history
2. Diabetes
3. Cardiovascular disease
4. Migraine syndrome
5. Nearsightedness
6. Eye trauma
7. Prolonged use of corticosteriods

13

Glaucoma can cause ___________ blindness

irreversible

14

Diagnostics:

Tonometry-

Measures IOP

15

Diagnostics:

Opthalmoscopy-

Inspects the optic nerve

16

Diagnostics:

Gonioscopy-

To examine the filtration angle of the anterior chamber

17

Diagnostics:

Perimetry-

Assesses visual field

18

Medications / Miotics (there are 6)

1. Cholinergics - Pilocarpine
2. Adrenergic agonists - Dipivefrin
3. Beta blockers - Betaxolol
4. Alpha - adrenergic agonists - apraclonidine
5. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors - Acetazolamide
6. Prostaglandin analogs - Latanoprost

19

What is the name of the Cholinergic medication used to treat glaucoma?

Pilocarpine

20

What is the name of the Adrenergic agonists medication used to treat glaucoma?

Dipivefrin

21

What is the name of the Beta-blocker medication used to treat glaucoma?

Betaxolol

*hint, hint has the word Beta in it

22

What is the name of the Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors?

Acetazolamide

23

What is the name of the Prostaglandin analogs used to treat glaucoma?

Latanoprost

24

What is the name of the Alpha-adrenergic agonists medication used to treat glaucoma?

apraclonidine

25

Which angle is usually bilateral?

Open angle

26

Glaucoma Open angle:

* Usually bilateral
* Anterior chamber angle is open; appears normal
* 3 types: Chronic, Normal tension, and Ocular hypertension

27

Glaucoma Closed angle:

* Less common
* Sudden onset
* Medical emergency

28

Which angle is less common?

Closed angle

29

Which angle has a sudden onset?

Closed angle

30

Which angle has 3 types: Chronic, normal tension & Ocular hypertension

Open angle

31

Describe Cataracts

A lens opacity or cloudiness

32

Cataracts effects 20 million Americans over the age of ____.

40

33

By the age of ____ years old, _____ of all Americans are effected.

80 / half

34

Cataract Risk Factors (there are 6)

1. Aging
2. Associated Ocular conditions
3. Toxic Factors
4. Nutritional factors
5. Physical factors
6. Systemic diseases & syndromes

35

Toxic factors, Systemic diseases & syndromes are risk factors for what eye condition?

Cataracts

36

Symptomology of cataracts (there are 5, name them)

1. Blurry vision
2. Reduced visual acuity
3. Sensitivity to glare
4. Color shift
5. Astigmatism ( a refractive error of the eye)
6. PAIN IS NOT A SYMPTOM

37

Is pain a symptom for cataracts?

No

38

Treatment /Cataracts

SURGERY IS THE ONLY TREATMENT FOR CATARACTS

39

Management for cataracts (3 options)

Pre-op
post-op
Pt. education- Discharge & home care

40

Detached Retina is

a separation of the RPE from the sensory layer

41

Trauma or fibrous scar tissue can cause?

Detached Retina

42

Symptoms of Detached Retina (there are 3)

1. Shade / curtain across visual field of one eye
2. Floaters
3. Bright flashing lights
* PAIN IS NOT A SYMPTOM FOR DETACHED RETINA

43

Pain is not a symptom for Detached Retina and Cataracts, correct?

Yes

44

Conjunctivitis

Bacterial-Gonorrhea, S. pneumonia, H. influenza, S.aureus, Chlamydia

45

Symptomology for Bacterial Conjunctivitis

~Redness, burning, purulent discharge
~Trachoma (inflamed granulation on the inner surface of the eyelid) - associated w/Chlamydial conjunctivitis

46

Viral Conjunctivitis

Viral- adenovirus, herpes simplex virus

47

Symptoms for viral conjunctivitis

~ Watery discharge, prominent follicles, redness, foreign body sensation, eye lid edema.

~ Epidemic Keratonconjunctivitis- The highly contagious & easily transmitted from person to person

48

Redness, burning, purulent discharge is an example of which conjunctivitis?

Bacterial

49

Watery discharge, prominent follicles, redness, foreign body sensation, eye lid edema is an example of which conjunctivitis?

Viral

50

Trachoma- associated w/Chlamydial conjunctivitis is a symptom of _____ __________?

Bacterial conjunctivitis

51

Conjunctivitis allergic-

can be apart of allergic rhinitis or an independent allergic reaction.

52

Symptoms of Allergic conjunctivitis (there are 3, name them)

1. Pruritus (severe itching of the skin)
2. Excessive tearing
3. String like mucoid

*toxic- result of chemicals

53

Allergic conjunctivitis is more common on:

1. Children
2. Young adults
3. Those that have a history of asthma or eczema

54

Treatments for conjunctivitis (name all 6)

1. Antibiotics
2. Cold compress
3. Corticosteroids
4. Allergy medications
5. Saline or sterile water irrigation
6. Analgesics

55

Patient Teaching for conjunctivitis

HAND WASHING

56

HEARING AND BALANCE / WORDS TO KNOW-

Deafness

partial or complete loss of the ABILITY to hear

57

Hearing loss

DYSFUNCTION of any component of the auditory system

58

Presbycusis

Progressive hearing loss associated with aging

59

Conductive hearing loss

When sound is not transmitted to the middle ear. Can be medically or surgically corrected.

60

Sensorineural hearing loss

hearing loss related to damage of the end organ for hearing or cranial nerve VIII or both. Permanent hearing loss cannot be corrected medically or surgically.

61

Which hearing loss condition is permanent and CANNOT be corrected medically or surgically?

Sensorineural hearing loss

62

Nursing assessment for hearing loss conditions includes: (name all 3)

Family history, Pt. history, Pt. assessment

63

Otitis externa

1. Swimmers ear
2. Bacterial or fungal infections

64

Swimmer's ear:

Inflammation of the external auditory canal causes water in the ear canal.

65

Bacterial or fungal infections are an example of

Otitis externa

66

Signs & symptoms of otitis externa (there are 4, name them)

1. Pain
2. Edema
3. Erythema (reddening of skin, usually in patches)
4. Foul smelling discharge

67

Otitis media is an

acute infection- lasts <6 weeks

68

Otitis media

Bacterial infection: S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis

69

Signs & symptoms for Otitis media are (there are 4, name them)

1. Pain
2. Fever
3. Drainage
4. Inspection of ear shows inflamed tympanic membrane

70

Meniere's Disease is

an abnormal inner ear fluid balance.

71

____% of pt.'s have positive family history of Ménière's disease.

50

72

Meniere's Disease can cause (4 conditions, name them)

Fluctuating & progressive sensorineural hearing loss, tinnitus and vertigo

73

Meniere's Disease

N/V, diaphoresis, waxing & waning of hearing loss

74

Medications for Meniere's Disease (there are 4, name them)

1. Meclizine (Antivert)
2. Diazepam (Valium)
3. Promethezine (Phenergan)
4. Hydrochlorthiazide (HCTZ)

75

Meclizine (Antivert) and Hydrochlorthiazide (HCTZ) are 2 of the 4 medications for which ear disease?

Meniere's Disease

76

Medications that cause Ototoxicity (name the 4)

1. Diuretics
2. Chemotherapeutic agents
3. Anti-inflammatory agents
4. Chemicals

77

Aminoglycoside antibiotics that cause ototoxicity are (there are 3, name them):

1. gentamycin
2. neomycin
3. streptomycin

78

Other antibiotics that cause ototoxicity are (there are 2, name them)

1. erythromycin
2. vancomycin

79

Metals that cause ototoxicity (there are 3, name them):

1. lead
2. gold
3. mercury

80

Assistive devices for hearing loss (there are 4, name them)

1. Hearing aids
2. Pocket talker
3. Cochlear implant
4. Hearing guide dog

81

Nursing interventions for Meniere's Disease inclulde

Feel free to comment other interventions

1. Low salt diet
2. Treatment directed towards attempts to decrease fluid pressure in the inner ear
3. Administer diuretic as ordered (along w/low salt diet, will not work alone)
4. Avoid dining out ( sodium intake cannot be accurately accounted for
5. Drink 6-8 glasses of fresh (unsoftened) water.
6. Teach pt. about foods they can or cannot eat
7 Educate patient on surgery if medical therapy is not working.