A condition caused by differences in the curvature of the cornea & lens
Removal of the intraocular contents through a corneal or scleral incision.
Involuntary oscillation of the eyeball
Ocular pain due to exposure to light
Deviation from perfect ocular alignment
What is Glaucoma
Optical nerve damage related to increased intraocular pressure (IOP)
Prevalent in adults >40, men and African americans
Glaucoma risk factors (there are 7)
1. Family history
3. Cardiovascular disease
4. Migraine syndrome
6. Eye trauma
7. Prolonged use of corticosteriods
Glaucoma can cause ___________ blindness
Inspects the optic nerve
To examine the filtration angle of the anterior chamber
Assesses visual field
Medications / Miotics (there are 6)
1. Cholinergics - Pilocarpine
2. Adrenergic agonists - Dipivefrin
3. Beta blockers - Betaxolol
4. Alpha - adrenergic agonists - apraclonidine
5. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors - Acetazolamide
6. Prostaglandin analogs - Latanoprost
What is the name of the Cholinergic medication used to treat glaucoma?
What is the name of the Adrenergic agonists medication used to treat glaucoma?
What is the name of the Beta-blocker medication used to treat glaucoma?
*hint, hint has the word Beta in it
What is the name of the Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors?
What is the name of the Prostaglandin analogs used to treat glaucoma?
What is the name of the Alpha-adrenergic agonists medication used to treat glaucoma?
Which angle is usually bilateral?
Glaucoma Open angle:
* Usually bilateral
* Anterior chamber angle is open; appears normal
* 3 types: Chronic, Normal tension, and Ocular hypertension
Glaucoma Closed angle:
* Less common
* Sudden onset
* Medical emergency
Which angle is less common?
Which angle has a sudden onset?
Which angle has 3 types: Chronic, normal tension & Ocular hypertension
A lens opacity or cloudiness
Cataracts effects 20 million Americans over the age of ____.
By the age of ____ years old, _____ of all Americans are effected.
80 / half
Cataract Risk Factors (there are 6)
2. Associated Ocular conditions
3. Toxic Factors
4. Nutritional factors
5. Physical factors
6. Systemic diseases & syndromes
Toxic factors, Systemic diseases & syndromes are risk factors for what eye condition?
Symptomology of cataracts (there are 5, name them)
1. Blurry vision
2. Reduced visual acuity
3. Sensitivity to glare
4. Color shift
5. Astigmatism ( a refractive error of the eye)
6. PAIN IS NOT A SYMPTOM
Is pain a symptom for cataracts?
SURGERY IS THE ONLY TREATMENT FOR CATARACTS
Management for cataracts (3 options)
Pt. education- Discharge & home care
Detached Retina is
a separation of the RPE from the sensory layer
Trauma or fibrous scar tissue can cause?
Symptoms of Detached Retina (there are 3)
1. Shade / curtain across visual field of one eye
3. Bright flashing lights
* PAIN IS NOT A SYMPTOM FOR DETACHED RETINA
Pain is not a symptom for Detached Retina and Cataracts, correct?
Bacterial-Gonorrhea, S. pneumonia, H. influenza, S.aureus, Chlamydia
Symptomology for Bacterial Conjunctivitis
~Redness, burning, purulent discharge
~Trachoma (inflamed granulation on the inner surface of the eyelid) - associated w/Chlamydial conjunctivitis
Viral- adenovirus, herpes simplex virus
Symptoms for viral conjunctivitis
~ Watery discharge, prominent follicles, redness, foreign body sensation, eye lid edema.
~ Epidemic Keratonconjunctivitis- The highly contagious & easily transmitted from person to person
Redness, burning, purulent discharge is an example of which conjunctivitis?
Watery discharge, prominent follicles, redness, foreign body sensation, eye lid edema is an example of which conjunctivitis?
Trachoma- associated w/Chlamydial conjunctivitis is a symptom of _____ __________?
can be apart of allergic rhinitis or an independent allergic reaction.
Symptoms of Allergic conjunctivitis (there are 3, name them)
1. Pruritus (severe itching of the skin)
2. Excessive tearing
3. String like mucoid
*toxic- result of chemicals
Allergic conjunctivitis is more common on:
2. Young adults
3. Those that have a history of asthma or eczema
Treatments for conjunctivitis (name all 6)
2. Cold compress
4. Allergy medications
5. Saline or sterile water irrigation
Patient Teaching for conjunctivitis
HEARING AND BALANCE / WORDS TO KNOW-
partial or complete loss of the ABILITY to hear
DYSFUNCTION of any component of the auditory system
Progressive hearing loss associated with aging
Conductive hearing loss
When sound is not transmitted to the middle ear. Can be medically or surgically corrected.
Sensorineural hearing loss
hearing loss related to damage of the end organ for hearing or cranial nerve VIII or both. Permanent hearing loss cannot be corrected medically or surgically.
Which hearing loss condition is permanent and CANNOT be corrected medically or surgically?
Sensorineural hearing loss
Nursing assessment for hearing loss conditions includes: (name all 3)
Family history, Pt. history, Pt. assessment
1. Swimmers ear
2. Bacterial or fungal infections
Inflammation of the external auditory canal causes water in the ear canal.
Bacterial or fungal infections are an example of
Signs & symptoms of otitis externa (there are 4, name them)
3. Erythema (reddening of skin, usually in patches)
4. Foul smelling discharge
Otitis media is an
acute infection- lasts <6 weeks
Bacterial infection: S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis
Signs & symptoms for Otitis media are (there are 4, name them)
4. Inspection of ear shows inflamed tympanic membrane
Meniere's Disease is
an abnormal inner ear fluid balance.
____% of pt.'s have positive family history of Ménière's disease.
Meniere's Disease can cause (4 conditions, name them)
Fluctuating & progressive sensorineural hearing loss, tinnitus and vertigo
N/V, diaphoresis, waxing & waning of hearing loss
Medications for Meniere's Disease (there are 4, name them)
1. Meclizine (Antivert)
2. Diazepam (Valium)
3. Promethezine (Phenergan)
4. Hydrochlorthiazide (HCTZ)
Meclizine (Antivert) and Hydrochlorthiazide (HCTZ) are 2 of the 4 medications for which ear disease?
Medications that cause Ototoxicity (name the 4)
2. Chemotherapeutic agents
3. Anti-inflammatory agents
Aminoglycoside antibiotics that cause ototoxicity are (there are 3, name them):
Other antibiotics that cause ototoxicity are (there are 2, name them)
Metals that cause ototoxicity (there are 3, name them):
Assistive devices for hearing loss (there are 4, name them)
1. Hearing aids
2. Pocket talker
3. Cochlear implant
4. Hearing guide dog
Nursing interventions for Meniere's Disease inclulde
Feel free to comment other interventions
1. Low salt diet
2. Treatment directed towards attempts to decrease fluid pressure in the inner ear
3. Administer diuretic as ordered (along w/low salt diet, will not work alone)
4. Avoid dining out ( sodium intake cannot be accurately accounted for
5. Drink 6-8 glasses of fresh (unsoftened) water.
6. Teach pt. about foods they can or cannot eat
7 Educate patient on surgery if medical therapy is not working.