SuperCharged Science Unit 0
is the rate of change in velocity. In other words, how fast is a
change in speed and/or a change in direction happening?
is smallest bit of stable matter. The proton and neutron make up
the core (nucleus) surrounded by electrons in shells.
the temperature at which a material changes from liquid to
gas. Objects absorb heat as they evaporate.
Changing from a liquid to a gas
boiling, evaporating, or vaporizing
The _________ has a positive charge
the _________ has no charge
Conservation of Energy
means that in a closed system energy can neither
be created nor destroyed.
Keeps the electrons from flying away from the
electron carries a _________ electrical charge.
Electrons can/cannot be split apart
Zipping around the nucleus is the
the ability to do work
The amount of energy a photon (packet of light) has determines whether it’s a __________ or ________
particle or wave
Photons with the lowest amounts of energy and
longest wavelengths (some are the size of football fields
microwaves have more energy than________
have the most amount of energy
s a push or a pull, like pulling a wagon or pushing a car.
an invisible area around an object within which that object
can cause other objects to move. A force field can be attractive (pull an
object towards it) or repulsive (push an object away).
The four force fields are
gravity, magnetic, electric, and electromagnetic
Changing from a liquid to a solid
temperature at which a material changes from liquid to gas. Objects release
heat as they freeze.
fundamental strong force
holds the quarks together inside the proton
_____ have no bonds between the molecules.
force that attracts things to one another
Changing from a solid to a liquid
If an atom has more electrons spinning in one direction than in the other, that atom has a _________ _______.
measure of how much matter (how many atoms) make up an object.
anything that has mass
Neutrons are made from two down and one up ______.
similar to gas but the molecules are very highly energized. The molecule is in the gas phase but are vibrating and moving around so vigorously that they knock electrons off each other, which ionizes the gas and gives the gas different properties (like being able to conduct electricity).
packet of light
Just like M&Ms are packets of chocolate,
photons are packets of light in a predetermined amount.
The number of protons inside the atom determines what type of ____________ it is.
Protons are made from two up and one down ________
residual strong force
the glue that sticks the nucleus of an atom
together, and is one of the strongest force we've found (on its own scale).
Solids have strong, stiff ______ between molecules that hold the molecules in place.
The 4 states of matter are:
Solid, liquid, gas and plasma
is basically a speedometer for molecules. The faster they are
wiggling and jiggling, the higher the temperature and the higher the thermal energy that object has.
Your skin, mouth and tongue are antennas which
can sense ___________ energy.
Velocity has both a _______ and a _________.
Speed and direction
measure of how much gravity is pulling on an object
moving something against a force over a distance
Work can be measured in ____________ or _________.
Joules or calories