SuperCharged Science Unit 0

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Vocabulary for Overview of Supercharged Science
Grade levels:
4th grade
Subjects:
science
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1

Acceleration

is the rate of change in velocity. In other words, how fast is a
change in speed and/or a change in direction happening?

2

atom

is smallest bit of stable matter. The proton and neutron make up
the core (nucleus) surrounded by electrons in shells.

3

Boiling point

the temperature at which a material changes from liquid to
gas. Objects absorb heat as they evaporate.

4

Changing from a liquid to a gas

boiling, evaporating, or vaporizing

5

The _________ has a positive charge

proton

6

the _________ has no charge

neutron

7

Conservation of Energy

means that in a closed system energy can neither
be created nor destroyed.

8

Keeps the electrons from flying away from the
nucleus.

electromagnetic force

9

electron carries a _________ electrical charge.

negative

10

Electrons can/cannot be split apart

can not

11

Zipping around the nucleus is the

electron

12

Energy

the ability to do work

13

The amount of energy a photon (packet of light) has determines whether it’s a __________ or ________

particle or wave

14

radio waves

Photons with the lowest amounts of energy and
longest wavelengths (some are the size of football fields

15

microwaves have more energy than________

radio waves

16

gamma rays

have the most amount of energy

17

Force

s a push or a pull, like pulling a wagon or pushing a car.

18

force field

an invisible area around an object within which that object
can cause other objects to move. A force field can be attractive (pull an
object towards it) or repulsive (push an object away).

19

The four force fields are

gravity, magnetic, electric, and electromagnetic

20

freezing

Changing from a liquid to a solid

21

Freezing point

temperature at which a material changes from liquid to gas. Objects release
heat as they freeze.

22

fundamental strong force

holds the quarks together inside the proton
and neutron.

23

_____ have no bonds between the molecules.

Gases

24

Gravity

force that attracts things to one another

25

melting

Changing from a solid to a liquid

26

If an atom has more electrons spinning in one direction than in the other, that atom has a _________ _______.

Magnetic field

27

Mass

measure of how much matter (how many atoms) make up an object.

28

Matter

anything that has mass

29

Neutrons are made from two down and one up ______.

Quark

30

Plasma

similar to gas but the molecules are very highly energized. The molecule is in the gas phase but are vibrating and moving around so vigorously that they knock electrons off each other, which ionizes the gas and gives the gas different properties (like being able to conduct electricity).

31

Photon

packet of light
Just like M&Ms are packets of chocolate,
photons are packets of light in a predetermined amount.

32

The number of protons inside the atom determines what type of ____________ it is.

element

33

Protons are made from two up and one down ________

quark

34

residual strong force

the glue that sticks the nucleus of an atom
together, and is one of the strongest force we've found (on its own scale).

35

Solids have strong, stiff ______ between molecules that hold the molecules in place.

bonds

36

The 4 states of matter are:

Solid, liquid, gas and plasma

37

Temperature

is basically a speedometer for molecules. The faster they are
wiggling and jiggling, the higher the temperature and the higher the thermal energy that object has.

38

Your skin, mouth and tongue are antennas which
can sense ___________ energy.

thermal

39

Velocity has both a _______ and a _________.

Speed and direction

40

Weight

measure of how much gravity is pulling on an object

41

Work

moving something against a force over a distance

42

Work can be measured in ____________ or _________.

Joules or calories