Sociology Chapter 5- Social Groups and Formal Organizations

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1

social interaction

acts people perform toward one another and the responses that they give in return

involves: communication (verbal/nonverbal), images, email, subtle gestures

2

types of social interaction- exchange

people transfer goods, services,a nd other items

ex- kid is good and gets a cookie

3

types of social interaction- cooperation

people work together to achieve shared goals

ex- students study together to study for an exam

4

types of social interaction- competition

two or more parties work towards the same goal against one another

ex- sporting events

5

types of social interaction- conflict

process in which groups try to physically or socially vanquish the other

ex- war, political debates

6

types of social interaction- coercion

people will compel others to do something against their will, most commonly with violence

ex- police, armed forces

7

aggregates

people who temporarily share a space but dont see themselves as belonging together

ex- classroom

8

category

people who share similar characteristics but do not interact with one another or do not consider the others

9

What are two social classifications that are not considered groups?

aggregates and categories

10

primary group

characterized by: cooperative relationships, intimate relationships, long-term relationships, face to face relationships

essential to the persons psychological well-being

11

secondary group

more structured with specific roles: larger, more anonymous, impersonal

12

voluntary associations

group of volunteers with similar goals and leadership

13

in groups versus our groups

lead o rivalries

14

reference groups

groups that we use to evaluate ourselves (can/cannot be a part of them)

15

Electronic communities

people connect online through online chat rooms, etc.- these can be impersonal and fail to meet the needs of intamacy

16

additave work group

all members perform the same activity and pull them together in the end

17

conjuctive work group

different but related tasks that allow the completion of a goal

18

disjunctive task work group

members meet to determine the best option

19

judgement task

members must choose the one correct feasible plan to complete the goal

20

decision-making task

members must choose the best alternative from a group of options

21

Who came up with the concept of bureaucracies?

Weber

22

What are the 5 characteristics of bureaucracies?

1- clear cut levels
2- division of labor
3- written rules
4- written communication and records
5- impersonality

23

peter principle

promote until the point of incompetency

24

two types of leaders

instrumental and expressive leaders

25

instrumental leaders

leader how keeps the goal on track towards meeting the goals

26

expressive leader

tries to life the group's morale through motivation ( can also be instrumental)

27

leadership styles- authoritarian

those who give orders, don't explain or condemn work, "I'm the boss" attitude, "no news is good news"

28

leadership styles- democratic

gain consensus by explaining proposed actions, suggest alternatives, give facts about the process

29

leadership styles- Parcipitative

happy medium between micromanaged and not being seen

30

leadership styles- charasmatic

gets their hands dirty and energetic in driving others foreward

31

leadership styles- servant

not recognized as leaders, meets the needs of the team, not company, part of democratic

32

leadership styles- task oriented

focused only on getting the work done =, becomes difficult to retain employees

33

leadership styles- laissez faire

do what you want fools

34

What must be considered when choosing a leadership style?

-work involved
-organizational environment
-your own preferred style

35

Asch studies

studied the effects of peer pressure by using a set of cards with 6 stooges and one non stooge to see if they'd answer wrong, even if they knew it was wrong

36

Milgram study

studied the affects of authority figures through a teacher and learner, controversial