Bio 122 Winter 2014 Midterm GENERAL TERMS

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1

protostomous development

-"proto": 1st, "stoma": mouth
-the first opening (the blastopore) becomes the mouth in embryonic development
-AKA schizocoelomates
-phyla Mollusca, Annelida, and Arthropoda
-spiral cleavage

2

deuterostomous development

-"deutero": other, "stoma": mouth
-the first opening (the blastopore) becomes the anus in embryonic development
-AKA enterocoelomates
-radial cleavage

3

schizocoely

-process of coelomic/body cavity formation (in embryos) in protostome animals
-the initial cavitation is a "split" in the mesodermal band/embryonic tissue

4

enterocoely

-process of coelom and mesoderm formation (in embryos) in deuterostome animals
-coelom forms from pouches "pinched" off of the digestive tract

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concurrent flow

-the two fluids flow in the same direction
-only capable of moving half (50%) of the property from one flow to the other
-maximum exchange possible is an averaging of the concentrations in the two streams
-less efficient, < than 50% O2 extracted

6

counter current flow

-(respiratory) ~80% O2 extracted
-two flows move in opposite directions, the system can maintain a nearly constant gradient between the two flows over their entire length
-much more efficient b/c of the two currents flowing in opposite directions allowing for faster fluid exchange
-gradient is maintained throughout the length of association of the streams

-ex)O2 transport across gill epithelium involves movement of material from a water current over the gills into a circulatory system that is also moving

7

monecious

-hermaphroditic
-having male and female reproductive organs in the same animal

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dioecious

-gonochoristic (separate sexes)
-having the male and female reproductive organs in separate individuals

9

hermaphroditic

-having both male and female sex organs or other sexual characteristics

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coelom

-fluid-filled body cavity lined with mesoderm (mesothelium), located between the intestinal canal and the body wall
-functions as hydrostatic skeleton, internal transport, excretion, and reproduction

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hemocoel

-fluid-filled cavity between the organs of most arthropods and mollusks through which the blood and instertial fluid circulates (hemolymph)

12

chitin

-a fibrous substance consisting of cellulose-like polysaccharides and forming the exoskeleton of arthropods
-ex) arthropods in their exoskeletons, molluscs in their radula, cephalopods in their beaks

13

radial cleavage

-deuterostomes
-pattern of cell cleavage where: the cleavage planes are either parallel or perpendicular to the polar axis of the egg
-blastomeres of diff tiers are directly above and below each other

14

spiral cleavage

-protostomes
-pattern of cell cleavage where: the cleavage planes are oblique to the polar axis of the egg
-blastomeres of diff tiers are offset from respect to those above and below

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nephridia

-pair of kidneys: drain the pericardium vent into the mantle cavity
-nephridia (=little kidneys): ciliated tubules that pump out water to offset osmosis (maintain osmotic concentration/pressure)->used for filtration, secretion, and storage

16

protonephridium (small bilateria)

-blind tubule
-protonephridium: ciliated excretory tubule that opens to the exterior at a nephridiopore but is capped at its internal end by a specialized flagellated terminal cell
-one opening

17

metanephridium (large bilateria)

-ciliated funnel
-ciliated tubules that drain the primary urine that enters the coelom by selective reabsorption and secretion to final urine which is released at the nephridiopore

18

gastrulation

-phase early in the embryonic development of most animals: the process in which a gastrula develops from a blastula by the inward migration of cells
-after continued cell division, some blastomeres move into the interior of the blastula to form a two-layered gastrula
-first event in morphogenesis (the gradual conversion of more or less uniform embyro into a complex, multilayered adult

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teloblastic growth

-teloblast: large cell in the embryos of clitellate annelids which asymmetrically divide to form many smaller cells known as blast cells
-Some groups of annelids have fixed maximum numbers of segments, while others add segments throughout their lives
-the successive addition of segments posteriorly

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Protandry/protogyny

-Sequential hermaphroditism
-Protandry: begins life as a male and then changes into a female
-Protogyny: begins life as a female and then changes into a male

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bilateral symmetry

-being divisible into symmetrical halves on either side of a unique plane

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ocellus

-simple eye, contains a single lens
-light detector

23

hydrostatic skeleton

-uses non-compressible fluid as a skeletal element

24

endoderm, ectoderm, mesoderm

-types of tissues in body plan
-endoderm: inner
-ectoderm: outer
-mesoderm: middle