Chapter 3 Motivation

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1

As used in the sport psychology literature, motivation can refer to
a. an internal personality characteristic
b. an external influence
c. a consequence of or an explanation for behavior
d. all of the above
e. a and b

d. all of the above

2

What are the two primary situational considerations in need achievement theory?
a. probability of success and motive to achieve success
b. probability of success and incentive value of success
c. resultant achievement motivation and probability of success
d. incentive value of success and pride or shame
e. pride or shame and probability of success

b. probability of success and incentive value of success

3

Which of the following is (are) true concerning need achievement theory?
a. High achievers have high motivation to avoid success and low motivation to avoid failure.
b. High achievers enjoy evaluating their abilities.
c. Low achievers often become preoccupied with thoughts of failure.
d. all of the above
e. a and c

d. all of the above

4

In the competence motivation theory, ______ and _________ influence perceived competence, which in turn influences affect and motivation.
a. feedback; attributions
b. feedback; motivational orientations
c. motivational orientations; attributions
d. motivational climate; self-esteem
e. perceived control; feedback

b. feedback; motivational orientations

5

A task goal orientation will usually lead to which of the following?
a. persistence in the face of failure
b. selecting moderately difficult tasks or opponents
c. a strong work ethic
d. all of the above
e. a and b

d. all of the above

6

Which of the following is NOT a motive for continuing involvement in exercise programs?
a. social factors
b. enjoyment
c. weight loss
d. activity type
e. organization’s leadership

c. weight loss

7

In a general sense, motivation can be defined as
a. the intensity and direction of one's effort
b. the direction and width of one's effort
c. the intensity of one's effort
d. the direction of one's effort
e. none of the above

a. the intensity and direction of one's effort

8

Which type of motivational climate is associated with the most adaptive motivational changes?
a. mastery
b. performance
c. outcome
d. decision making
e. attributional

a. mastery

9

Ability is considered a(n) _______ and ________ attribute.
a. stable; external
b. stable; internal
c. unstable; internal
d. unstable; external
e. controllable; unstable

b. stable; internal

10

Defining motivation in a variety of ways is disadvantageous because
a. the precise topics of motivation are seldom identified
b. practitioners often do not recognize how specific motivational strategies interact and influence one another
c. intrinsic motivation is confused with extrinsic motivation
d. a and b
e. a and c

d. a and b

11

Internal and external attributions are linked to
a. emotional reactions
b. cognitions
c. expectations
d. behavioral intent
e. self-talk

a. emotional reactions

12

What is critical in affecting the performance and behavior of sport and exercise participants?
a. motivation
b. physiology
c. biomechanics
d. sociological factors
e. all of the above

e. all of the above

13

To understand students', athletes', and exercisers' motives for involvement, one should
a. observe participants to see what they like and do not like about the activity
b. talk to others who know the athletes and exercisers
c. periodically ask the participants to list their reasons for participation
d. all of the above

d. all of the above

14

Motivated behavior is primarily a function of individual characteristics. This is consistent with which view of motivation?
a. trait-centered
b. situational
c. individual
d. interactional
e. none of the above

a. trait-centered

15

A study by Sorrentino and Sheppard on motivation of swimmers found that
a. approval-oriented swimmers demonstrated faster times in the group than in the individual situation
b. approval-oriented swimmers demonstrated faster times in the individual situation than in the group situation
c. rejection-oriented swimmers swam faster in individual than in relay situations
d. a and c
e. b and c

d. a and c

16

Stable attributions are linked to
a. affect
b. cognition
c. expectations of future success or failure
d. emotions
e. none of the above

c. expectations of future success or failure

17

Which of the following statements is (are) true?
a. Mastery goals should be used more often than outcome goals.
b. Feedback to athletes should emphasize attributing their success to high ability and high effort.
c. Lack of effort, rather than lack of ability, should be emphasized after a failure.
d. all of the above
e. a and b

d. all of the above

18

Participant motivation usually is the result of
a. personal factors
b. situational factors
c. a combination of personal and situational factors
d. the history of success or failure
e. none of the above

c. a combination of personal and situational factors

19

Which of the following is NOT a major reason for initially joining an exercise program?
a. weight loss
b. fitness
c. health factors
d. affiliation
e. to feel better

d. affiliation

20

Attribution retraining generally focuses on changing
a. low-ability attributions
b. high-effort attributions
c. high-ability attributions
d. task difficulty attributions
e. luck attributions

a. low-ability attributions

21

Which of the following is NOT a stage of development in competitiveness and achievement motivation?
a. autonomous competence stage
b. integrated stage
c. social-comparison stage
d. perceived competence stage

d. perceived competence stage

22

In terms of emotional factors, high achievers focus on _______, whereas low achievers focus on ________.
a. pride; shame
b. elation; depression
c. fun; depression
d. shame; pride
e. pride; depression

a. pride; shame

23

Which of the following is NOT a component of achievement motivation theory?
a. motive to achieve success
b. probability of success
c. incentive value of success
d. resultant tendency to approach success
e. motive to seek approval from others

e. motive to seek approval from others

24

The overriding characteristic of individuals who exhibit learned helplessness is
a. attributing success to effort
b. feeling their actions have no impact on desired outcomes
c. attributing failure to bad luck
d. feeling they are in control of their actions
e. none of the above

b. feeling their actions have no impact on desired outcomes

25

An effective technique to use to change undesirable motives of a participant is
a. behavior modification
b. cognitive intervention
c. rational emotive therapy
d. cognitive restructuring
e. self-monitoring

a. behavior modification

26

"Self-competition" refers to ________, whereas performance in socially evaluative situations refers to ______.
a. competition; achievement motivation
b. competition; social facilitation
c. achievement motivation; competition
d. achievement motivation; social facilitation
e. competition; ego involvement

c. achievement motivation; competition

27

The most difficult but most important component of structuring sport and exercise environments to meet an athlete's or exerciser's needs is
a. individualizing coaching and teaching
b. finding rigorous training environments
c. deciding on what motivational strategy to use
d. balancing extrinsic and intrinsic motivation
e. none of the above

a. individualizing coaching and teaching

28

The sport-specific form of achievement motivation is called
a. competitiveness
b. confidence
c. mental preparation
d. mental toughness
e. none of the above

a. competitiveness

29

An athlete is more motivated when she plays against competitors who are better than she is than when she plays better than her competitors. This is an example of which approach to motivation?
a. trait-centered
b. situational
c. interactional
d. individual
e. none of the above

b. situational

30

Which is the most widely endorsed view of motivation taken by sport psychologists?
a. trait-centered
b. situational
c. interactional
d. individual
e. none of the above

c. interactional

31

The results of the Sorrentino and Sheppard study have which of the following practical implications?
a. The four fastest swimmers would not necessarily make the best relay team.
b. Both situation and personal factors should be considered in understanding motivation.
c. Approval-oriented swimmers would perform best in relays.
d. all of the above

d. all of the above

32

Competence motivation theory was based on the research of developmental psychologist
a. Tara Scanlan
b. Susan Harter
c. Thelma Horn
d. Glyn Roberts
e. Albert Bandura

b. Susan Harter

33

Attribution theory focuses on
a. how individuals explain their success and failure
b. how groups explain their personality attributes
c. how individuals explain their personal attributes
d. how individuals explain their personal biases
e. none of the above

a. how individuals explain their success and failure

34

Achievement motivation can best be viewed as a(n)
a. situational factor
b. personality factor
c. interactional factor
d. attributional factor
e. unstable factor

b. personality factor

35

Which of the following is NOT one of the major motives for participating in sport and exercise?
a. having fun
b. being with friends
c. improving skills
d. pleasing parents
e. developing fitness

d. pleasing parents

36

A disposition to strive for satisfaction when making comparisons with some standard of excellence in the presence of evaluative others" is the definition of which of the following?
a. achievement motivation
b. self-esteem
c. self-confidence
d. self-concept
e. none of the above

e. none of the above

37

The interactional view of motivation claims that motivation is an interaction of which two factors?
a. person and situation
b. goals and coach’s style
c. personality and goals
d. personality and needs
e. goals and win–loss record

a. person and situation

38

Which one of the following is NOT a general orientation to motivation?
a. trait-centered
b. situational
c. individual
d. interactional
e. none of the above

c. individual

39

For low achievers, which situation provides the LEAST incentive for engaging in achievement behaviors?
a. 50% chance of success
b. 25% chance of success
c. 75% chance of success
d. 60% chance of success
e. 10% chance of success

a. 50% chance of success

40

For high achievers, which situation provides the MOST incentive for engaging in achievement behavior?
a. 50% chance of success
b. 25% chance of success
c. 75% chance of success
d. 60% chance of success
e. 10% chance of success

a. 50% chance of success

41

Bill is always concerned with comparing his ability to others' and winning. Bill thus has
a. a mastery goal orientation
b. a task goal orientation
c. an attribution goal orientation
d. an outcome goal orientation
e. an achievement goal orientation

d. an outcome goal orientation

42

Recent research indicates interesting cross-cultural differences in motives for participation. Which of the following is FALSE?
a. U.S. youngsters are more intrinsically motivated than Korean youngsters.
b. Participants in Asian countries are more interdependent, whereas North Americans are more independent.
c. American youngsters are more motivated by competition than Chinese youngsters, who are more motivated by social affiliation.
d. Chinese Americans are primarily motivated because of travel and having fun.
e. U.S. children are primarily motivated to win, whereas German children are primarily motivated to please parents.

e. U.S. children are primarily motivated to win, whereas German children are primarily motivated to please parents.

43

The entity view of goal perspectives argues that individuals
a. view their ability primarily as fixed
b. adopt a task focus
c. adopt maladaptive motivational patterns
d. b and c
e. a and c

e. a and c