Chapter 2 Personality and Sport

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1

Which of the following is NOT a level in Hollander's model of personality structure?
a. childhood experiences
b. psychological core
c. typical responses
d. role-related behavior
e. a and b

a. childhood experiences

2

Research in the general psychological literature indicates that nature (i.e., genetics) generally accounts for approximately what percentage of behavior?
a. 10 to 20%
b. 20 to 30%
c. 30 to 40%
d. 50 to 60%
e. 80 to 90%

d. 50 to 60%

3

Which is NOT an example of a situation-specific sport inventory?
a. Sport Competition Trait Anxiety Test
b. Group Environment Questionnaire
c. Profile of Mood States
d. Trait-Sport Confidence Inventory
e. Competitive State Anxiety Inventory

c. Profile of Mood States

4

The trait approach to personality assumes that
a. people behave differently in different situations
b. people behave similarly in different situations
c. personality does not change much over time
d. a and c
e. b and c

e. b and c

5

In the iceberg profile developed by Morgan, which of the following psychological characteristics that successful athletes display is typically above the mean of the population?
a. anxiety
b. anger
c. fatigue
d. vigor
e. confusion

d. vigor

6

The interactional approach assumes that
a. situational and personal variables are codeterminants of behavior
b. personality interacts with the psychological core to determine behavior
c. highly aggressive people, for example, will usually react in an aggressive manner when placed in an aggressive situation
d. a and c
e. a and b

d. a and c

7

Recently, the "big five" model of personality has become widely accepted. Which of the following is not one of the five personality factors in the model?
a. agreeableness
b. conscientiousness
c. neuroticism
d. extraversion
e. depression

e. depression

8

When administering tests to athletes, which of the following guidelines should be followed?
a. Explain to athletes why the tests are being given.
b. Tell athletes what the tests measure.
c. Provide specific feedback concerning test results.
d. all of the above

d. all of the above

9

Morgan developed the _________ model to help explain the relationship between personality and athletic success.
a. normative
b. mental health
c. psychological skills
d. psychopathology

b. mental health

10

Trait anxiety refers to _________ anxiety, whereas state anxiety refers to __________ anxiety.
a. general; momentary
b. momentary; general
c. competitive; noncompetitive
d. noncompetitive; competitive
e. none of the above

a. general; momentary

11

Which of the following is not a subscale from the Athletic Coping Skills Inventory?
a. concentration
b. coachability
c. goal setting
d. imagery
e. freedom from worry

d. imagery

12

Recently, the psychodynamic approach has been applied to sport by Swedish sport psychologist Erwin Apitzsch. This new approach came from his work with athletes focusing on
a. the superego
b. defense mechanisms
c. ego development
d. early childhood experiences
e. conflicts between the id and superego

b. defense mechanisms

13

Which of the following is (are) NOT a question(s) that a researcher using the interactional approach would ask?
a. Will highly anxious athletes perform better than less anxious athletes in situations that are not stressful?
b. Will extroverts perform better than introverts in a team situation?
c. Will highly motivated people choose to participate in competitive situations?
d. Will kids with high self-esteem prefer competitive sport situations to a greater degree than kids with low self-esteem?

c. Will highly motivated people choose to participate in competitive situations?

14

Which of the following statements about exercise and personality is (are) true?
a. There is a positive relationship between exercise and self-concept.
b. Exercise has consistently been related to changes from Type A behavior to Type B behavior.
c. Exercise participation is most strongly related to social self-concept.
d. a and b
e. a and c

a. There is a positive relationship between exercise and self-concept.

15

A weakness in the psychodynamic approach is its
a. sole focus on internal determinants of behavior
b. lack of attention to the social environment
c. sole focus on external determinants of behavior
d. a and b
e. b and c

d. a and b

16

Which of the following is (are) true?
a. Successful female athletes differ in personality from female nonathletes.
b. Male and female elite athletes have similar personality profiles.
c. Female athletes are more aggressive and independent than female nonathletes.
d. all of the above
e. a and c

d. all of the above

17

Taking an intra-individual approach to psychological testing means that
a. individuals are compared against population norms
b. individuals are compared against how they usually score on a particular psychological inventory
c. individuals are compared to norms for their age and gender
d. individuals are compared based on objective and subjective assessments
e. none of the above

b. individuals are compared against how they usually score on a particular psychological inventory

18

Showing a person a picture of an athlete arguing with an official and then asking the person to write about what is happening is an example of
a. objective testing
b. projective testing
c. multidimensional personality assessment
d. unidimensional personality assessment
e. psychological trait–state inventory

b. projective testing

19

Which of the following is (are) true?
a. Participation in competitive sport produces changes in personality structure.
b. Compared with nonathletes, individual-sport athletes are less anxious and more dependent.
c. Compared with nonathletes, team-sport athletes are more introverted and independent.
d. a and b
e. b and c

b. Compared with nonathletes, individual-sport athletes are less anxious and more dependent.

20

To better understand personality, you should
a. be a good communicator
b. be an informed consumer
c. use lots of personality tests with athletes
d. be a good observer
e. consider both personality traits and states

e. consider both personality traits and states

21

Researchers have recently used the Athletic Coping Skills Inventory (ACSI) to investigate the relationship between coping skills and performance. Results have indicated that
a. good psychological coping skills help athletes get the most out of their ability
b. good psychological coping skills are associated with continued involvement in professional baseball
c. the ACSI is a good tool to use for team selection
d. all of the above
e. a and b

e. a and b

22

The most superficial and therefore most easily changed part of a personality structure is its
a. psychological core
b. role-related behavior
c. typical responses
d. belief system

b. role-related behavior

23

The research criticizing Morgan's mental health model and the implications of the "iceberg profile" has argued that
a. the iceberg profile accounts for only a very small percentage of athletes' performance variation
b. the iceberg profile only differentiates athletes from nonathletes and does not differentiate between athletes of different ability levels
c. the Profile of Mood States (POMS) is not a reliable test
d. a and b
e. a and c

d. a and b

24

Approximately how many articles have been published on sport personality in the professional sport psychology literature?
a. 100
b. 300
c. 1,000
d. 2,000
e. 5,000

c. 1,000

25

Test anxiety is an example of a
a. trait measure
b. state measure
c. situation-specific trait measure
d. situation-specific state measure
e. none of the above

c. situation-specific trait measure

26

The situational approach to personality assumes that
a. individuals behave differently across situations
b. individuals behave similarly across situations
c. if the situation is strong, the effect of personality traits would be minimal
d. a and b
e. a and c

e. a and c

27

Eysenck and Eysenck argue that personality can best be understood by focusing on which of the following traits?
a. emotionality and stability
b. introversion and extroversion
c. relaxation and anxiety
d. a and b
e. all of the above

d. a and b

28

Recent research has been critical of some of the findings concerning the relationship between mood states and performance. Which of the following is NOT a recommended guideline for using mood profiling with elite athletes?
a. Use it as a monitor of training load.
b. Use it as a monitor of the acclimatization process.
c. Use it as a predictor of team success.
d. Use it as a monitor of emotional response to injury.
e. Use it for identification of overtrained athletes.

c. Use it as a predictor of team success.

29

According to results from in-depth interviews with Olympic athletes, medalists exhibited which of the following mental strategies?
a. more positive self-talk
b. more extensive mental preparation
c. better preparedness for unforeseen negative events
d. all of the above
e. a and b

d. all of the above

30

Which of the following is (are) important when administering psychological inventories?
a. knowledge of testing principles and measurement error
b. sensitivity to one's own limitations
c. whether to use tests for team selection
d. all of the above
e. a and c

d. all of the above

31

Based on psychological data only, Morgan was successful in predicting ____ out of 16 rowers who eventually made the U.S. heavyweight rowing team.
a. 5
b. 12
c. 10
d. 14
e. 7

c. 10

32

The research investigating the personality profiles of athletes and nonathletes has found that
a. no specific personality profile distinguishes athletes from nonathletes
b. athletes have higher levels of anxiety than nonathletes
c. athletes are more introverted than nonathletes
d. athletes have higher levels of self-esteem than nonathletes

a. no specific personality profile distinguishes athletes from nonathletes

33

Which of the following statements about exercise and personality is (are) true?
a. There is a positive relationship between exercise and self-concept.
b. Exercise has consistently been related to changes from Type A behavior to Type B behavior.
c. Exercise participation is most strongly related to social self-concept.
d. a and b
e. a and c

a. There is a positive relationship between exercise and self-concept.

34

The “big five” model of personality is important because these five characteristics
a. represent a cognitive approach to personality
b. are consistent with a behavioral approach to personality
c. have been found to exist across individuals
d. represent a state approach to personality
e. are consistent with Morgan’s mental health model

c. have been found to exist across individuals

35

The phenomenological approach to personality is consistent with the interactional approach except that it focuses on
a. the individual’s interpretation of the situation and himself or herself
b. the traits of an individual
c. the situation a person is dealing with at the time
d. the behavior of the individual
e. the outcome of the behavior

a. the individual’s interpretation of the situation and himself or herself