The olfactory and gustatory receptors are examples of:
Olfactory receptors are found:
only in the portion of the nasal cavity beneath the cribiform plate and a portion of the superior nasal concha
These first order neuron cells provide for the sense of smell:
olfactory hair cells
These provide physical support, nourishment and electrical insulation for olfactory receptors:
Adaptation in the olfactory receptors:
Which of the following is not a primary taste sensation?
These cells provide receptors for the sense of taste:
Vallate papillae are located on the:
posterior region of the tongue
Taste buds are found in:
epiglottis, pharynx, and soft palate
the frequency of a sound vibration
Perilymph fills the:
Sensory stimulation to the posterior 1/3 of the tongue is conducted by the:
glossopharyngeal nerve (VII)
Sound waves are translated into nerve impulses in the:
spinal organ (organ of Corti)
This structure connects to the oval window:
A reflex reaction to loud sounds prevents damage to the inner ear. This reaction is due to contraction of:
tensor tympani and stapedius muscles
High intensity (loud) sounds can cause deafness because they are most damaging to the:
hair cells of the spinal organ of Corti
The neural receptors for the sense of hearing are located in this region:
Endolymph is found within the:
cochlear duct (scala media)
The round window connects to the:
Nerve fibers that synapse with hair cells (stereocilia) in the spiral organ of Corti unite to form part of this cranial nerve:
vestibulocochlear nerve (VIII)
Which of the following represents the correct pathway leading to the perception of sound?
tympanic membrane, ossicles, perilymph, endolymph, hair cells
Which of the following is associated with equilibrium?
Each crista in the semicircular ducts is covered by a gelatinous material called the:
Which of the below structures senses dynamic equilibrium?
calcium carbonate crystals
An acute infection of the middle ear caused mainly by bacteria and associated with infections of the
nose and throat:
Which of the following is not a part of the signal transduction mechanism?
Which of the following structures acts to convert sound waves to vibrations?
Which of the following structures converts vibrations to action potentials?
spinal organ of Corti
The external auditory meatus passes through the:
Which of the following helps maintain an equal air pressure in the middle ear?
pharynogotympanic tube (eustachian tube or auditory tube)
Which of the following structures carries action potentials caused by sound transduction?
cranial nerve VIII
The five established basic gustatory senses are: _____________________ __________________
________________ ______________________ and _______________________.
sweet, salty, bitter, sour, umami
A "salt flavoring" that stimulates the umami receptor, often added to oriental dishes, is commonly identified by the letters of its chemical name - _________.
Any compound detected by a gustatory receptor is called a _________________________.
Odorants must dissolve in mucus before initiating an action potential. Tastants must dissolve in
___________________ before initiating an action potential.
The phenomena of ________________ ________________, involving lack of appetite, often results from
cancer chemotherapy treatments.
Identified properly by number, which three cranial nerves carry gustatory impulses to the CNS - ______
______ and ______.
VII, IX, X
This normally-collapsed tube equalizes the air pressures between the atmosphere and middle ear during yawning or swallowing - ________________________ _______________.
pharyngotympanic tube, auditory tube, or eustachian tube
This fluid occupies the space between the bony labyrinth and the membranous labyrinth within the vestibule and the semicircular canals __________________________________.
The reduced sense of smell commonly arising in older individuals is called ______________________.
Sensory connections to this system in the CNS can initiate strong emotional responses - _______________ system.
Since some of these sensory connections are not routed through the thalamus, strong odors do not stimulate the ______________ _______________, the system responsible for arousal from sleep.
reticular activating system (RAS)
Bundles of these unmyelinated sensory axons going through the openings of the cribriform plate of the
ethmoid bone represent this cranial nerve whose name is ___________ and whose cranial nerve number is _____.
This is the fluid found in the scala media - _____________.
The umami receptor detects this amino acid in its sodium salt form - __________________________.
glutamate (glutamic acid)
Several of the primary taste receptors activate the G-protein signaling system to activate receptor
potentials leading to the exocytosis of neurotransmitters that initiate action potentials in first order neurons.
Sound travels at different speeds through different media.
The taste threshold for bitter substances is the highest (requires a high concentration).
The threshold of producing a generator potential is very high for olfactory receptor cells.
Generally, women have a more keen olfactory sense than men.
Humans have olfactory receptors to detect pure natural gas.
Olfactory receptors (neurons) are replaced every month or so by the differentiation of basal stem cells found in the olfactory epithelium.
There are so many different types of gustatory receptors that the actual number is unknown.
Beginning with "C" place the letters in correct order of sound reception, transduction, and action potentials in cranial nerve VIII.
A. tympanic membrane
B. inner hair cell hairs hitting the tectorial
C. external auditory canal
D. oval window
E. perilymph of the scali vestibuli
F. vestibular membrane, endolymph, basilar membrane
G. ear ossicles
H. action potentials traveling along the acoustic
nerves of the cranial nerve VIII
C. A. G. D. E. F. B. H.