Chapter 8 Carbon Chemistry

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1

How many bonds can carbon form?

4

2

What kind of structural bonds can carbon form?

straight, branched, ring

3

What are the four forms of the element carbon?

diamond, graphite, fullerenes, and nanotubes

4

What form of carbon is extremely hard and nonreactive?

diamond

5

What form of carbon is bonded tightly to three other carbon atoms in flat layers?

graphite

6

A carbon atom arranged in the shape of a hollow sphere is known as what?

fullerene

7

A carbon atom arranged in the shape of a long, hollow cylinder is known as what?

nanotube

8

What are similar properties that organic compounds share?

melting point, boiling point, odor, electrical conductivity, solubility

9

Hydrocarbons are composed of what two kinds of elements?

carbon and hydrogen

10

What mixes poorly with water and are flammable?

hydrocarbons

11

What kinds of structures can hydrocarbons form?

straight, branched, ring-shaped

12

Compounds that have the same chemical formula, but different structural formulas are known as what?

isomers

13

What kind of bonds can carbon atoms form?

single, double, triple

14

Methane, ethane, propane, and butane are all explains of what kind of hydrocarbons?

saturated

15

Hydrocarbons with the -ene or -yne ending are?

unsaturated

16

In a substituted hydrocarbon, an atom of another element replaces a(an)..?

hydrogen atom

17

An alcohol is a substituted hydrocarbon that contains one or more what kind of groups?

hydroxyl -OH

18

The group -COOH is characteristic of?

organic acids

19

Polymers are composed of smaller molecules known as?

monomers

20

What are the building blocks of proteins?

amino acids

21

Synthetic polymers that can be molded or shaped are?

plastics

22

What is a composite?

when two or more substances have been combined into a new material with different properties

23

What is an example of a natural composite?

wood

24

What have pleasant, fruity smells?

esters

25

What are the four classes of organic compounds required for life?

carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, nucleic acids

26

What is a carbohydrate?

an energy rich organic compound made of the elements carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.

27

The chemical formula C6H12O6 is for what important sugar?

glucose

28

Plants store energy in the form of what complex carbohydrate?

starch

29

Most fruits and vegetables are high in what complex carbohydrate?

cellulose

30

What does the body use proteins for?

to build and repair body parts and regulate cell activities

31

What is a lipid?

energy-rich compounds made of carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen