BSC 2086 Flashcards

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created 10 years ago by dadchaneefau
Chapter 1 from slices of Mr. Lovelace
updated 10 years ago by dadchaneefau
Grade levels:
College: First year
anatomy & physiology ii
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What is an anatomy?

(Overview of Anatomy and Physiology)

Study of Structure


What are subdivisions of an Anatomy?

(Overview of Anatomy and Physiology)

1. Gross or Macroscopic
2. Microscopic
3. Developmental


Please give samples of gross or macroscopic in anatomy?
(Overview of Anatomy and Physiology)

regional, systemic, and surface anatomy


Please give samples of Microscopic in Anatomy?

(Overview of Anatomy and Physiology)

Cytology and Histology


Please give samples of developmental in Anatomy?

(Overview of Anatomy and Physiology)



What do you study about the Anatomy?

(Overview of Anatomy and Physiology)

- Mastery of Anatomical terminology
- Observation


What is Physiology?

(Overview of Anatomy and Physiology)

Study of the function of the body


What are subdivisions based on organ systems?

(Overview of Anatomy and Physiology)

Samples, Renal or Cardiovascular physiology.


What is the Physiology focuses on ?

(Overview of Anatomy and Physiology)

Often focuses on Cellular and Molecular level, e.g. Body's abilities depend on chemical reactions in individual cells.


Are anatomy and physiology Inseparable?

(Principle of Complementarity)

No, they are not separable, we have to study them together.


Why anatomy (structure) and Physiology (function) are inseparable?
(Principle of Complementarity)

Function (physiology) always reflects Structure(Anatomy)


Please levels of Structural Organization from Smallest to biggest
(Organelles is a part of the chemical level which is the smallest level of structural organization)

1.Chemical(Atoms and Molecules and organelles ----->2. Cellular (cells)-->3. Tissue (group of similar cells)--> 4.Organ (contains 2or more types of tissues i.e. heart, stomach)-->5.Organ system (organs that work closely together i.e. digestive system)-->6. Organismal (the whole body)


Again please levels of Structural Organization from Smallest to Biggest

Chemical-->Cellular-->Tissue-->Organ--> Organ System/System Level-->Organismal


Again please levels of Structural Organization from Smallest to Biggest

Atom C,H,o -->DNA-->Smooth muscle tissue--> Epithelial tissue stomach (that contain with 3 layers)-->Digestive system-->Whole body


Now please levels of the structural organization from Biggest to smallest

Oraganismal-->Organ system/system level--> organ
-->Tissue--> Cell-->Chemical


What is Humans?

(Interdependence of body cells)

Humans are multicellular, it is about 100 billion cells which are active cells.


What about the humans are Multicellular?

(Interdependence of body cells)

1. To function, must keep individual cells alive.
2. All cells depend on Organ system to meet their survival needs.


What is about Homeostasis?


It maintain optimal, condition, in your body/ temperature and PH


Continue -- what is about Homeostasis?


All body functions spread among the different organ system (level).


Continue -- What is about Homeostasis?


Organ systems cooperate to maintain life.


What is about the Homeostasis (subdivision meaning)?

1. Maintenance of relatively stable internal conditions despite continuous changes in environment.


What is about the Homeostasis (subdivision meaning)?

2. A dynamic (ever changing/always changing) state of equilibrium (balance).


What is about the Homeostasis (subdivision meaning)?

3.Homeostasis maintained by contributions of all organ systems.


What is about the Homeostasis (subdivision meaning)?

4.Each body structure, from chemical to systemic level (digestive system) contributes to homeostasis.


What is about the Homeostasis (subdivision meaning)?

5. Homeostasis is controlled through feedback system or Feedback system control over homeostasis.


The control of homeostasis is constantly being challenged by 3 factors of what?

1. Physical insult ( you feel it)
such as intense heat or lack of oxygen.


The control of homeostasis is constantly being challenged by 3 factors of what?
( Homeostasis)

2. Changes in the internal environment
Such as a drop in blood glucose due to lack of food


The control of homeostasis is constantly being challenged by 3 factors of what?
( Homeostasis)

3. Physiological stress
Such as demands of work or school


What is about the Homeostasis (subdivision meaning)?

Disruptions are mild if balance is quickly restored


What is about the Homeostasis (subdivision meaning)?

Intense disruptions are often prolonged and result in disease (poisoning or severe infections)or death.


What is the Feedback system in the Homestasis?

(Feedback System)

A cycle of events in which the status of a body condition is monitored, reevaluated, and so on


What are examples of monitored variables (controlled conditions)?
(Feedback System)

- Blood pressure
- Temperature
- Blood glucose levels


What are 3 basis components of the Feedback system?

Receptor (skin-receiver)--> Control Center (Brain)--> Effector (Sweat)
So this cycle are never constantly


What are about 1. Integumentary System (hair, Skin, Nail)

(Organ system of the body)

1 Forms the external body covering and protects deeper tissues from injury.
2 Synthesizes Vitamin D, and houses cutaneous (pain, pressure, etc)
3.Receptors and sweat and oil glands.


What are about 2. Skeletal System? ( Bones, Joint)

(Organ system of the body)

1. Protects and support body organs
2. Provides a framework the muscles use to cause movement.
3. Blood cells are formed within bones.
4. Bones store minerals.


What are about 3. Muscular System (Skeletal muscles)
(Organ system of the body)

1 Allow manipulation of the environment, locomotion, and facial expression.
2 Maintains posture, and produces heat


What are about 4.Nervous System? ( Brain, Spinal Cord, and Nerves)*about muscle and glands*
(Organ system of the body)

1. As the fast-acting control system of the body.
2. It responds to internal and external changes by activation appropriate muscles and glands.


What are about 5. Endocrine system?(Pineal gland,Pituitary gland,Thyroid gland,Thymus gland,pancreas,ovary and testis
(Organ system of the body)

Glands secret hormones that regulate processes such as growth, reproduction, and nutrient use (metabolism) by body cells.


What are about 6.Cardiovascular System? (Heart and Blood vessels
(Organ system of the body)

1.Blood vessels transport blood, which carries oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, waste,etc
2.The heart pumps blood.
3.)*Concern about ATP that produce energy to the body get oxygen to produce ATP for us to be survive


What are about 7.Lymphatic system/Immunity? (Red bone Marrow, Thymus, Lymphatic vessels, Thoracic duct,spleen,and Lymph nodes
(Organ system of the body)

1 Picks up fluid leaked from blood vessels and returns it to blood.
2 Disposes of debris in the lymphatic stream.
3 Houses white blood cells (lymphocytes)involved in immunity.
4 The immune response mounts the attack against foreign substances within the body.


What are about 8.Respiratory system? (Nasal cavity,Pharynx,Larynx,Trachea,Lung,Bronchus)
(Organ system of the body)

1 Keeps blood constantly supplied with oxygen and removes carbon dioxide.
2 The gaseous exchanges occur through the walls of the air sacs of the lung.


What are about 9.Digestive system? (Oral cavity,Esophagus,Large Intestine,small intestine,Liver,stomach,rectum,anus
(Organ system of the body)

1 Breaks down food into absorbable units that enter the blood for distribution to body cells.
2 Indigestible food stuffs are eliminated as feces.


What are about 10 Urinary system? (kidney,Ureter,Uninary bladder,urethra)
(Organ system of the body)

1 Eliminate nitrogeneous wastes from the body.
2 Regulates water,electrolyte,and acid balance of the blood


What are about 11 Male reproductive system (Prostate gland,Penis,testis,ductus deferens,scrotum)
(Organ system of the body)

1 Overall function is production of offspring.
2 Testes produce sperm and male sex hormone, and male ducts and glands aid in delivery of sperm to the female reproductive tract.
3 Overies produce eggs and female sex hormones.


What are about 12 Female reproductive system (mammary glands-in breasts),ovary,uterus,vagina,uterine tube)
(Organ system of the body)

4 The remaining female structures serve as sites for fertilization and development of the fetus.
5 Mammary glands of female breasts produce milk to nourish the newborn.


What is a fact about Organ system of the body?

The systems of the body may appear to be separate and distinct BBBBUUUTT the maintenance of most body functions requires the INtegration of many systems working together.


Superior-cephalic and cranial

(Anatomical term)

- The heart is superior to the liver
- The head is cephalic/cranial to the abdomen



(Anatomical term)

- The stomach is inferior to the lung.
- The navel is caudal to the chin.


Anterior or Ventral

(Anatomical term)

- The sternum(breastbone) is anterior to the heart.
- The breastbone is ventral to the spine


Posterior or dorsal

(Anatomical term)

- The esophagus(food tube) is posterior to the trachea(windpipe)
- The heart is dorsal to the breastbone (sternum)



(Anatomical term)

- The ulna is medial to the radius.
- The heart is medial to the arm.



(Anatomical term)

- The lungs are lateral to the heart.
- The arms are lateral to the chest.



(Anatomical term)

- The collarbone is intermediate between the breastbone and shoulder.