Computer Basics

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created 6 years ago by BardOfRagehjhs
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Computer Basics
updated 6 years ago by BardOfRagehjhs
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1

Computer

A device that accepts input, processes data, produces output, and stores information.

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Input

Information fed into the computer system.

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Processing

To carry out operations on data or programs.

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Output

Useful information that leaves the system.

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Data

Raw material ready for processing.

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Information

data that has been processed and turned into useful facts.

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Storage

Area of the computer that holds data on a permanent basis.

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Hertz

Measure speed of the central processing unit (CPU).

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Megahertz (MHz)

1 million cycles per second.

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Gigahertz (GHz)

1 billion cycles per second.

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Pixel

The basic unit of an image.

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Resolution

Amount of pixels on the screen - the more pixels, the better the resolution.

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Memory

Area of the computer that temporarily holds data or information that is waiting to be processed.

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Kilobyte(KB)

1 thousand bytes.

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Megabyte(MB)

1 million bytes.

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Gigabyte(GB)

1 billion bytes.

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Terabyte(TB)

1 trillion bytes.

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Hardware

Physical parts of the computer (mouse, keyboard, printer, CPU).

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Software

A program that instructs the computer what to do.

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System Software

A program that controls some aspect of the operation of a computer. Examples: operating system, compiler, utility program.

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Application Software

A program that carries out user defined tasks. Examples: word processing, spreadsheet, presentations, a game, etc.

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Boot process

Starting up the computer.

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Boot selector

A small program on the hard drive that tells the computer how to begin loading programs.

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Binary or base 2 Numbering System

A method for representing letters or numbers using only two digits, 0 and 1 - most basic level of communicating with computers.

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ASCII Code

A number assigned to each letter and character in the alphabet.

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Bit

Each 0 and 1.

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Byte

8 bits.

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Personal computer or microcomputer

A personal computer based on a micro processor.

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Desktop

Personal computer that fits on a desk - more power and storage for less cost than a laptop.

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laptop/Notebook

A portable computer - all components contained within the laptop.

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Workstation

A desktop computer that is part of a Local Area Network.

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Mainframe

Large, expensive computer able to process data for thousands of users at the same time.

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Supercomputer

Fastest, most powerful computers available.

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Server

Provides services to other computers over a network

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PDA

Personal Digital Assistant. Small portable device with network capabilities.

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Smartphone

A cell phone that offers many features including internet access and applications (apps).

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Tablet

A wireless, portable personal computer which uses a touchscreen.