the digestive system

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chapter 14
updated 7 years ago by felchuk13
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1

continuous, coiled, hollow, muscular tube that winds through the ventral body cavity and is open at both ends.

Alimentary canal/ GI tract

2

what are the 6 organs of the alimentary canal?

mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small and large intestine

3

mucous membrane lined cavity

mouth

4

protect mouths anterior opening

lips

5

form the mouth lateral walls

cheeks

6

form the mouths anterior roof

hard palate

7

forms the mouths posterior roof

soft palate

8

fleshy fingerlike projection of the soft palate

uvula

9

space between the lips and cheeks externally and the teeth and gums internally

vestibule

10

area contained by the teeth

oral proper cavity

11

occupies the floor of the mouth

tongue

12

fold of mucous membrane, secures the tongue to the floor of the mouth and limits its posterior movements

lingual frenulum

13

posterior end of oral cavity are paired masses of lymphatic tissue

palatine tonsils

14

covers the base of the tongue just beyond

lingual tonsils

15

walls contain 2 skeletal muscle layers - cells of the inner =___________, cells of the outer =_______

pharynx; run longitudinally ; run around the wall in a circular fashion

16

from the mouth food passes posteriorly into the oropharynx and laryngopharynx which are ?

common passageways for food, fluids, and air

17

posterior to the oral cavity

oropharynx

18

continuous with the esophagus below

laryngopharynx

19

(gullet), runs from the pharynx through the diaphragm to the stomach

esophagus

20

passageway that conducts food to the stomach

esophagus

21

walls of the alimentary canal organs from the _____ to the large intestine are made up of four basic tissue layers

esophagus

22

innermost layer; moist membrane lines lumen of the organ

mucosa

23

what type of tissue is the mucosa made up of?

surface epithelium; small amount of connective tissue(lamina propria)

24

scanty smooth muscle layer; esophagus has friction resisting _______; just beyond the esophagus is ________

mucosa; stratified squamous; simple columnar

25

just beneath the mucosa; soft connective tissue containing blood vessels, nerve endings, lymph noduls, lymphatic vessels

submucosa

26

third tissue layer; muscular layer made up of an inner circular layer and an outer longitudinal layer of smooth muscle cells

muscularis externa

27

outermost layer; single layer of flat serous producing cells

serosa

28

continuous with the slick slippery parietal peritoneum

visceral peritoneum

29

lies the abdominopelvic cavity by way of a membrane extension called ______

parietal peritoneum, mesentery

30

what are the two intrinsic nerve plexuses of the alimentary canal? what are they apart of and what do they do?

1. submucosal nerve plexus 2.myenteric; part of the autonomic nervous system; help regulate the mobility and secretory activity of GI tract organs

31

where is the stomach located?

left side of the abdominal cavity

32

stomach region positioned near the heart; surrounds the cardio esophageal sphincter

cardiac region

33

through which food enters the stomach from the esophagus

cardio esophageal sphincter

34

expanded part of the stomach lateral to the cardiac region

fundus

35

mid portion of stomach; as it narrows it becomes the ______

Body; pyloric antrum

36

funnel shaped, terminal part of the stomach; continuous with small intestine through the pyloric sphincter

pylorus

37

when the stomach collapses inward on itself and mucosa is thrown into large folds

rugae

38

convex lateral surface of stomach

greater curvature

39

stomachs concave medial surface

lesser curvature

40

double layer of peritoneum; extends from liver to the lesser curvature

lesser omentum

41

extension of the peritoneum

greater omentum

42

draps downward and covers the abdominal organs, attaches to the posterior body wall; riddeled with fat for insulation, cushion, protection

greater omentum

43

large collections of lymph nodules containing macrophages and defensivr cells of the immune system

greater omentum

44

acts as a temporary storage

stomach

45

what does the third layer of the stomach do? (oblique layer)

allows it to churn, mix, and pummel the food= physically breaking it down into smaller pieces

46

Where does the chemical breakdown of proteins begin?

stomach

47

mucosa of the stomach composed entirely of mucous cells that produce a protective layer of what?

bicarbonate-rich alkaline mucus

48

what is the smooth lining of the stomach dotted with?

gastric pits leading to gastric glands that secrete gastric juices

49

substance needed for absorption of vitamin B12

intrinsic factor

50

produce protein digesting enzymes (pepsinogens)

chief cells

51

produce hydrochloric acid

parietal cells

52

makes stomach contents acidic and activates enzymes

parietal cells

53

produce thin acidic mucous

mucous neck cells

54

produce local hormones (gastrin)

enteroendocrine cells

55

Where does most digestive activity occur?

pyloric region or stomach

56

heavy cream formed after food has been processed

chyme

57

body's major digestive organ

small intestine

58

muscular tube extending from the pyloric sphincter to the large intestine

small intestine

59

____ hangs in sausaglike coils in the abdominal cavity, suspended by the fan shaped _______

small intestine; mesentery

60

What are the three subdivisions of the small intestine?

Duodenum, jejunum, ileum

61

joins the large and small intestine

ileocecal valve

62

Where does chemical digestion of food begin?

small intestine

63

Controls food movement into the small intestine from the stomach

pyloric sphincter

64

How is bile formed?

by the liver

65

nearly all food absorption occurs where?

small intestine

66

tiny projections of plasma membrane, give the cell a fuzzy appearance known as brush border

microvilli

67

fingerlike projections of mucosa, give a velvety apperance

villi

68

within each ______ is a rich capillary bed and modified lymphatic capillary bed called ?

villi; lacteal

69

Bear enzymes that complete the digestion of proteins and carbohydrates

microvilli

70

deeps folds of both mucosa and submucosa layers

circular folds (plicae ciculares)

71

collections of lymphatic tissue, found in submucosa increase in number toward the end of small intestine

peyer's patches

72

extends from the ileocecal valve to the anus

large intestine

73

what is the major function of the large intestine?

to dry out the indigestible food residues from the body as feces

74

First subdivision of the large intestine; saclike; appendix hangs from it

cecum

75

second subdivision of the large intestine; what are the different parts?

colon; ascending, transverse, descending

76

descending colon becomes the ?

sigmoid colon

77

third subdivision of the large intestine

rectum

78

fourth subdivisions of the large intestine; ends at the anus

anal canal

79

what are the sphincters of the anal canal? what are they made of?

External voluntary sphincter- skeletal muscle; Internal involuntary sphincter- smooth muscle

80

what are present in the large intestine, that produce alkaline mucus

goblet cells (act as lubricant)

81

teniae coli display muscle tone which cause the wall to pucker into small pocket like sacs called?

haustra

82

what are the accessory digestive organs?

teeth, salivary glands, pancreas, liver, gallbladder

83

large glands that lie anteriorly to the ears, when inflamed= mumps

parotid

84

empty their secretions into the floor of the mouth through tiny ducts

submandibular and sublingual glands

85

mixture of mucous and serous fluid; contains salivary amylase, lysozymes, antibodies

saliva

86

soft, pink, triangular gland extends across the abdomen from the spleen to the duodenum

pancreas

87

secreted into the duodenum in an alkaline fluid that neutralizes the acid chime coming from stomach

pancreas enzymes

88

produces hormones insulin and glucagon

pancreas

89

largest gland in the body and one of the most important

liver

90

where is the liver located?

under the diaphragm more to the right side of the body

91

liver is suspended from the diaphragm and abdominal wall by a delicate mesentery cord called?

falciform ligament

92

how does bile leave the liver?

through the common hepatic duct

93

small, thin walled, green sac that snuggels in the surface of the liver

gallbladder

94

what does the gall bladder do?

store bile