Pharmacology

Helpfulness: +6
Set Details Share
created 10 years ago by andykew
826 views
updated 10 years ago by andykew
Grade levels:
College: Fourth year
show moreless
Page to share:
Embed this setcancel
COPY
code changes based on your size selection
Size:
X
Show:
1

Generic name of Drug

Common name, not capitalized

2

Brand/Trade name of Drug

Name used for marketing and followed by symbol (R). Name is registered and its use is restricted to the owner of the drug.

3

Chemical Name of Drug

Chemical constitution of the drug

4

Absorption

drug is transferred from its site of entry into the body to the circulating fluid (blood, lymph)

5

Distribution

ways in which drugs are transported by the circulating body fluid to the sites of action, metabolism, and excretion

6

Metabolism

"biotransformation"- process by which body inactivates drugs

7

Excretion

elimination of metabolites of drugs, and sometimes the active drug, in urine, feces, sweat, tears.

8

Percutaneous routes of administration

inhalation, sublingual, topical

9

Drug toxicity

when adverse side effects are severe

10

Anaphylactic Reaction

a severe, life-threatening reaction that causes respiratory distress and cardiovascular collapse. It is a medical emergency and requires immediate attention.

11

Drug Incompatibility

When one drug is chemically incompatible with another drug causing deterioration when the two drugs are mixed. Signs: cloudiness, haziness, precipitation, color changes

Ex: ampicillin + gentamicin= ampicillin inactivated gentamicin

12

Additive Effect

Two drugs with similar actions are taken for a doubled effect

Ex: propoxyphene + aspirin= added analgesic effects

13

Drug Half-Life

The amount of time required for half of the drug to be eliminated from the body. Drugs with short half lives must be given more frequently than drugs with long half-lives.

Ex: Aspirin half-life: 5 hours-give frequently, Digoxin half-life: 36 hours-give daily

14

Drug Allergy

Hypersensitivity reaction-occurs in 6-10% of patients taking medications. Occur in patients previously exposed to a drug and have developed antibodies. Most drug allergies are mild. Urticaria is a possible warning to an anaphylactic reaction.

15

Agonists-Antagonists

Agonists: drugs that interact with a receptor to stimulate a response.

Antagonists: drugs that attach to a receptor, but DO NOT stimulate a response

16

Nursing Process and Drug
Assessment

Begins with patient admission and ends with discharge. Subjective (what client says) and Objective (what nurse observes)

17

Nursing Process and Drug
Analyze/Diagnose

Gathering and compiling data obtained from assessment to prioritize patient's needs.

18

Nursing Process and Drug
Planning

Develop goals (client will), prioritize goals, nursing interventions, and client outcomes

19

Nursing Process and Drug
Implementation

Process of carrying out established plan of care

20

Nursing Process and Drug
Evaluation

Determine effectiveness of goals

21

Six Rights of Drug Administration

Drug, Time, Dose, Patient, Route, Documentation

22

Actions of analgesic-meperidine (Demerol)

Relieves severe pain without loss of consciousness. Opiate agonists. Acts at the same opiate receptors in CNS as morphine to stimulate analgesic effects.

23

Opiate Agonists
Routes

PO, SC, IM (Duration 2-4 hours), IV (give very slowly)

24

Opiate Agonists
What do they do?

Stimulates opiate receptors to block pain without loss of consciousness
Depresses CNS-reflexes, gag, cough, respirations, can cause euphoria and slows GI motility

25

When can addiction or tolerance occur with opiate agonists?

can occur after 3-6 weeks of continuous use

26

Side effects to report with opiate agonists

Respiratory Depression, Urinary Retention

27

What are the sub groups of opiate agonists?

Morphine-like derivatives, meperidine-like derivatives, methadone-like derivatives, and other.

28

Opiate Antagonist (antidote for morphine)

Naloxene (Narcan)
Competes for and blocks agonists from attaching to the receptor
It is a pure opiate antagonist and its only effect is to reverse the effects of opiate agonists, opiate partial agonists, and propoxyphene.

29

What is Miosis? What do Mitotic agents do?

a contraction of the iris muscle (pupil narrows)-parasympathetic nerve fibers.
Mitotic agents cause contraction and are used to treat acute angle closure glaucoma.
ex. pilocarpine

30

What is mydriasis?

dilation of pupil-sympathetic motor nerve fibers. Mydriatic agents cause pupil dilation.

31

What are the effects of cholinergic agents?

parasympathomimetic
wet and slow
decreased HR, increased GI motility and secretions, increase contractions of bladder, sweating, miosis of eye (decreased IOP), increased force fo contraction of skeletal muscle

32

What are antiemetics used for?

post-op N/V, motion sickness, pregnancy, psychogenic, chemotherapy-induced N/V, anticipatory (sight/smell causes) delayed emesis, radiation-induced N/V

Treat nausea BEFORE vomiting occurs

33

Chemotherapy Induced Myelosuppression

Decreased WBC count, Risk for infection, risk for injury (bleeding)
Suppression of bone marrow production of blood cells.
Causes: Leukocytopenia, thrombocytopenia, neutropenia

34

What is an anticancer drug?

(doxorubicin),Adriamycin

35

What are the uses of aminoglycosides?

to cure gram negative infections-inhibit protein synthesis-treatment of chronic UTIs and meningitis, life-threatening septicemia. Wound infections

36

What are the side effects of aminoglycosides?

ototoxicity, nephrotoxicity

37

What are some examples of aminoglycosides?

end in -mycin, (NOT vancomycin), Tobrmycin and Gentamycin

38

What are the uses of tetracyclines?

Acne, rickettsial, allergies to penicillins, UTI, Upper respiratory tract infections, pneumonis, meningitis, Rocky Mountain Fever, Lime disease

39

What are the side effects of tetracyclines?

Nausea, vomiting, anorexia, abdominal cramps, diarrhea, photosensitivity, permanent staining of teeth during last half of pregnancy up to eight years

40

What is ethambutol (Myambutol)?

Antitubercular drug that is combined with other antitubercular agents to prevent resistance

41

What are the side effects of ethambutol (Myambutol)?

nausea, vomiting, anorexia, abdominal cramps. REPORT confusion, hallucinations, blurred vision, color blindness (red/green)

42

What is isoniazide (INH, Nydrazid)?

Antitubercular drug used for prophylaxis and treatment, used in combination with Rifampin. Inhibits metabolism of phenytoin.

43

What are the side effects of isoniazide (INH, Nydrazid)?

tingling, numbness, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, ataxia, hepatotoxicity

44

What is rifampin (Rifadin)?

antitubercular drug used for treatment in combination with isoniazide; treats meningitis and tuberculosis

45

What are the side effects of rifampin (Rifadin)?

reddish-orange secretions interferes with oral contraceptives
Use an alternative form of birth control

46

What does vancomycin treat? Side effects?

colitis; glycopeptide antibiotic; Red Mans Syndrome

47

What is Augmentin?

Amoxicillin + Potassium clavulanate; penicillinase (beta-lactamase) destroys beta-lactam ring of penicillin and makes bacteria resistant. Adding another structure to the penicillin that binds the penicillinase allows the penicillin molecule to inhibit cell wall synthesis. Potassium is added to amoxicillin to bind to the penicillinase.

48

Uses and Side effects of antiviral drugs

Example is acyclovir (Zovirax): Used for herpes genitalis, herpes simplex viral infections; it inhibits viral cell wall replication
the side effects are rash, hives, nephrotoxicity, hypotension, diaphoresis, confusion

49

What are the uses of cytotoxic drugs?(cell cycle specific)

selectively toxic when cell is in a specific phase of growth-thereofre schedule dependent-best if malignancy that proliferates rapidly

50

What are the uses of cytotoxic drugs? (cell cycle nonspecific)

active throughout cell cycle-may be more effective against slowly proliferation neoplastic tissue

51

What is doxorubicin (Adriamycin) used for?

cancers of soft tissue, osteogenic and miscelaneous sarcomas, Hodgkins/NonHodgkins disease, breast carcinoma, leukemias

52

What are the side effects of doxorubicin (Adriamycin)?

nausea, red urine, bone marrow suppression, cardiotoxicity, alopecia (hair loss), stomatitis

53

How do you take care of patients with doxorubicin (Adriamycin)?

Monitor vital signs and CBC, red urine is not hematuria, stomatitis (oral hygiene)

54

What are adrenergics (sympathomimetic or sympathetic)?

Anticholinergic- fast and dry, sympathetic-norephinephrine- "fight or flight"
Alpha: Vasoconstriction "Fight or Flight"

55

What are the side effects of adrenergics?

increased heart rate and blood pressure, dilated pupils (mydriasis)-screen for open-angle glaucoma due to decrease in IOP, decreased GI motility, decreased secretions, urinary retention, bronchodilation

56

Cholinergic (parasympathetic)

wet and slow
Cholinergic agent-acetylcholine-"Rest-Replenish-Reproduction"
Side effects: decrease heart rate and BP, pupil constriction (miosis): Increased IOP;screen for closed-angle glaucoma, increased GI motility, bronchoconstriction, increased constriction of urinary bladder, diaphoresis

57

What are the effects of epinephrine (Adrenaline)?What does it treat?

Increased Heart rate and blood pressure; treats allergic reactions, vasoconstrictor, bronchodilator, cardiac stimulant

Side effects are dysrhythmias, chest pain, hypotension, angina, nausea, vomiting, orthostatic hypotension

58

What are the effects of Atropine(anticholinergic)?
What does it treat?

reduces saliva and bronchial secretions (pre-op), minimizes bradycardia during intubation (antidote), treats pylorospasm, and spastic conditions of Gi tract, urethral and biliary colic
Antidote to Cholinergics
Side effects: constipation, dryness of mucosa, urinary hesitancy

59

What is a sedative?

quiets the patient and gives a feeling of rest and relaxation

60

What is a Hypnotic?

produces sleep

61

What is the difference between hypnotics and sedatives?

Can be the same drug only in different doses. Primarily used to treat insomnia, decrease anxiety and increase sleep/relaxation prior to procedure

62

What are barbituates used for?

Used primarily for sedative and hypnotic effects. The long-acting barbituate Phenobarbital is also used as an anticonvulsant. The ultra-short acting agents (methohexital, thiopental) may be administered as a general anesthetic.

63

How do you take care of patients taking barbituates?

Seek information regarding prior use of sedatives/hypnotic medications
Obtain information related to baseline neurological function
Assess respirations before giving medication (long half-life)

64

What happens if you discontinue barbitates quickly?

symptoms similar to alcohol withdrawal

65

What are the side effects of barbituates?

Expect hangover, lethargy, and sedation
REPORT: excessive use/abuse, paradox response, hypersensitivity, blood dyscrasias

66

What are the drug interactions of Barbituates?

Drugs that increase toxic effects: antihistamines, alcohol, analgesics, anesthetics, tranquilizers, valproic acid, chlormaphenicol, monoamine oxidase inhibitors, and other sedatives
Drugs that decrease toxic effects: Warfarin, digoxin, doxycycline, antidepressants, quinidine, and chlorpromazine

67

What are the benzodiazepines used for?

most commonly used as sedative-hypnotic
Used as pre-op sedative (IM) and consious sedation (IV) for induction of general anesthesia

68

What is Valium?

Benzodiazepine used for antianxiety, ethanol withdrawal symptoms, skeletal muscle relaxant, treatment of convulsive disorders

69

Short or long term use of Benzodiazepine?

When therapy starts, patient feels a sense of deep/refreshing sleep. With chronic use, the amount of REM sleep gradually increases as tolerance develops to the REM suppressant effects. It is important to use for short periods of therapy.

70

How do you take care of a patient on benzodiazepines?

Take baseline vitals, check history for blood dyscrasias, hepatic disease, or 1st trimester of pregnancy

71

What are the side effects of benzodiazepines?

drowsiness, hangover, sedation, lethargy

72

What is the action of antipsychotic agents?

Block the dopamine receptors in the brain. They work at different sites in the brain so the side effects are observed on different systems throughout the body

73

What are the side effect of antipsychotic agents?

tardive dyskinesia or extrapyramidal effects, blocks cholinergic, antihistamines, and nicotine

74

What is the drug class for digoxin?

digitalis glycosides

75

What is digoxin used for?

moderate to severe systolic heart failure not responding to diuretics and ACE inhibitors, atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter, and paroxysmal tachycardia. NOT used to treat diastolic heart failure (may worsen condition).

76

What is digitalization?

loading doses of digoxin over a period of hours/days to produce desired effect (usually 24-48 hours)

77

How do you take care of patients on Digoxin?

take apical pulse for 1 full minute, withhold drug if pulse is less than 60 or greater than 100. Witals, weight, labs, monitor for toxicity, hypokalemia, or sudden increase in pulse rate.

78

What can happen if a patient is on digoxin and diuretics?

hypokalemia

79

How and when do you give digoxin?

Give over 1 minute (IV) and (orally) after meals to minimize gastric irritation

80

What are side effects to report of digoxin?

pulse defecit, bradycardia, tachycardia,bigeminy, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, weakness of arms/legs, extreme fatigue, anorexia, hazy, or blurred vision can signify digitalis toxicity

81

What is the antidote for digoxin?

Digibind (digoxin immune FAB)

82

What are diuretics used for?

Treat major diseases affecting the cardiovascular system; heart failure (remove excess sodium and water to relieve symptoms associated with edema and pulmonary congestion) and hypertension

83

What reduces cerebral edema?

Mannitol

84

What reduces ascites associated with liver disease and promotes sodium excretion and saves potassium?

spironolactone (Aldactone)

85

What does Lasix (furosemide) do?

It is a diuretic and can be used to treat hypercalcemia. It should be taken in the morning.

86

What is a loop diuretic?

It is the most potent type of diuretics. It treats severe fluid volume overload. Watch out for ototoxicity and hypokalemia. Patient should eat potassium rich foods.

87

What reduces intraocular pressure with glaucoma?

acetazolamide

88

What is nitroglycerin used for?

angina pectoris

89

How do you assess a patient before giving nitroglycerin?

Assess pain level, location, duration, intensity. Ask about last dose of nitrates and effectiveness.

90

What are side effects to report for nitroglycerin?

prolonged headache, hypotension, tolerance

91

What should patients avoid when on nitroglycerin?

alcohol, smoking (can cause vasoconstriction), calcium ion antagonists, beta adrenergic blockers

92

What route of nitroglycerin has the longest duration?

patch, place anywhere without hair

93

What should nurse teach patient about when they are on nitroglycerin?

change position slowly because patient may experience postural hypotension

94

What is lidocaine (Xylocaine)?

antiarrythmic

95

What is lidocaine used for?

ventricular arrythmias, convert arrythmia to normal sinus rhythm

96

What assessments should nurses do before giving the patient lidocaine?

obtain data relating to the 6 cardinal signs of CV disease to be used as a baseline; Assess and record data relating to the patient's basic mental status

97

What side effects of lidocaine should be reported?

light headedness, muscle twitching, hallucinations, agitation, euphoria, respiratory depression

98

What are the drug interactions for lidocaine?

phenytoin, cimetidine, procainamide, tocainide, and beta adrenergic blockers (-lol) will enhance the therapeutic and toxic effects

99

What is succinycholine?

neuromuscular blocking agent

100

What are vasodilators used for?

relieve angina pectoris (chest pain) by inducing relaxation of peripheral vascular smooth muscles resulting in dilation of arteries and veins. They increase myocardial oxygen supply by dilating large coronary arteries and redistributing blood flow.

101

How do you administer vasodilators?

sublingual, transmucosal, translingual, topically, sustained release tablets, transdermal disk, and IV

102

What are the side effects of vasodilators?

hypotension, headache, tolerance

103

How do you treat hyperlipidemia?

cholestyramine (Questran)

104

What is cholestyramine (Questran) used for?

used in conjunction with dietary therapy (low fat and cholesterol) and exercise to decrease elevated cholesterol concentration in type 2 hyperlipidemia and to reduce the risk of atherosclerosis leading to CHD (coronary heart disease)

105

What assessments does the nurse do before giving cholestyramine (Questran)?

Serum triglyceride and cholesterol levels
Obtain any data related to GI alterations

106

what side effects come with cholestyramine (Questran)?

constipation, bloating, fullness, nausea, flatulence

107

What drug interactions occur with cholestyramine (Questran)?

reduces the effectiveness of Digitoxin, Warfarin, thyroxine, thiazide diuretics, phenobarbital, NSAIDS, tetracycline, amiodarone, beta blockers, fat soluble vitamins (ADEK), folic acid

108

What does pentoxifylline (Trental) do?

Decreases blood viscosity and improves blood flow by decreasing concentration of fibrinogen in blood, and preventing aggregation of RBC and platelets.

109

What is pentoxifylline (Trental) used for?

intermittent claudication

110

What are expectorants such as guaifenesin (Robitussin) used for?

Dry, nonproductive cough, remove mucus plugs from respiratory tract. Combined with bronchodilators, decongestants, antihistamines, or antitussives to aid in making nonproductive cough more productive. Effective if patient is well hydrated.

111

How do expectorant such as guaifenesin (Robitussin) work?

thins bronchial secretions to increase flow by decreasing mucus viscosity

112

How do antitussives such as codeine dextromethophan work?

suppress cough center in brain

113

What are antitussives such as codeine dextromethorphan used for?

used for dry, hacking nonproductive cough (decreases frequency and nocturnal spams)

114

How should you educate a patient on Lasix?

Teach them to rise slowly due to orthostatic hypotension. Tell them to administer Lasix with food or milk to decrease GI irritation. If they are allergic to sulfonamides they may also be allergic to Lasix. It should be taken in the morning to prevent nocturia.

115

What are some side effects of Lasix?

orthostatic hypotension (rise slowly), oral irritation (oral hygiene), dry mouth (ice chips, hard candy)

116

What should be done daily to a patient on Lasix?

Daily weight; need to watch for fluid and electrolyte imbalance

117

What should patients on spironolactone (Aldactone) be taught?

Do not take Potassium supplements or use salt substitutes
Should be administered with food
Don't administer at night (nocturia)

118

When is spironolactone (Aldactone) used?

It is used to treat edema and ascites that doesn't respond to other diuretics. It has been shown to reduce morbidity and mortality for patients with heart failure.

119

What are side effects of spironolactone (Aldactone)to report?

mental confusion, headache, diarrhea, dehydration, gynecomastia, decreased libido, breast tenderness

120

What are the most potent diuretics?

Loop diuretics

121

How do loop diuretics work?

Work on Loop of Henle and sometimes proximal and distal tubules to inhibit sodium chloride reabsorption. Water follows sodium so more water is excreted

122

What are loop diuretics used for?

severe fluid volume overload (excessive fluid accumulation), hypertension, edema, heart failure

123

What drugs can cause ototoxicity if combined?

Loop diuretics and aminoglycosides
Loop diuretics and Cisplatin
Note if patient speaks more loudly, asks for statements to be repeated, or plays the TV or radio louder

124

What are osmotic diuretics used for?

Decrease intraocular pressure (IOP) to treat closed angle glaucoma (decreases amount of intraocular fluid). Elevates osmotic pressure of the plasma, causing fluid from the extravascular spaces ro be drawn into the blood reducing IOP.

125

Thiazide diuretic-induced hyperuricemia

GOUT

126

How do Thiazide diuretics work?

acts on distal tubules of kidneys to block reabsorption of sodium and chloride ions from the tubule. The plasma uric acid is frequently elevated by thiazides, which inhibit uric acid excretion

127

How do you stop patient on thiazide diuretics from developing gout

Add a uricosuric agent or allopurinol to patient's medication regimen.

128

What should you educate patient who is taking (warfarin)Coumadin about?

They need to comply with the prescribed regimen and the need for lab data to determine the correct maintenance dose. Tell the patient to resume a regular schedule if one dose is missed. If two doses or more are missed, the patient should consult the physician.

129

Labs for Warfarin

PT/INR

130

Labs for Heparin

PTT, hemoglobin, platelet count; monitor for bleeding

131

Antidote for Warfarin

Vitamin K

132

Antidote for Heparin

protamine sulfate

133

What does aspirin do?

(anticoagulant)platelet inhibitor that causes the platelet to lose its ability to aggregate and form clots. Used for patients at risk for TIA and stroke.

134

How does heparin work?

Acts as a catalyst to accelerate the rate of action of naturally occurring inhibitor of thrombin, anti-thrombin 3 (heparin cofactor). In the presence of heparin, antithrombin 3 rapidly neutralizes thrombin, activated factors IXa, Xa, XI, and XII, and plasmin.

135

How is Novalog and Humalog (lispro) given?

given Subcutaneous

136

What is the only insulin that can be given IV?

Regular

137

how is NPH given?

Subcutaneous

138

How is Lantus given?

Subcutaneous

139

How is exubera given?

Inhalation powder

140

What drug class is albuterol in?

Beta-adrenergic bronchodilating agent

141

How does albuterol work?

relaxes smooth muscles of tracheobronchial tree to open bronchioles and alveolar ducts to greater air volume

142

What is albuterol used for?

asthma, bronchitis, emphysema, acute bronchospasms-RESCUE INHALER

143

How should the patient be assessed before being given albuterol?

baseline VS, presence of palpitations/arrhythmias, baseline mental status

144

What are the side effects to report of albuterol?

tachycardia, palpitations, nervousness, tremors, anxiety, restlessness, headache, nausea, vomiting, dizziness

145

What are some drug interactions of albuterol?

ticlopidine, tricyclic antidepressants, monoamine oxidase inhibitor, and other sympathetic agents enhance toxic effects
beta-adrenergic blocking agents decrease therapeutic effects

146

What are iron supplements used for?

treat iron deficiency anemias (patients should also increase iron intake (green leafy veggies, whole grains, meat, eggs, raisins)

147

how are iron supplements administered?

Use Z-track, so as not to stain the skin

148

What should patients be taught about iron supplements?

May cause black, tarry stools

149

What does Potassium Chloride do?

needed for the heart, acid-base balance, nerve conduction, body water balance, muscle contractions, most abundant intracellular mineral

150

What sources of food have potassium chloride?

citrus fruits, meat, milk, bananas, liver

151

Vitamins (Vital Amines)

Specific set of chemical molecules that regulate human metabolism and necessary to maintain health
13 Vitamins: 9 water soluble, 4 fat soluble (ADEK)

152

How do you administer Iron Dextran IM?

Use Z-track Method (Not to stain SC tissue or clothing). Inject deep in dorsal gluteal site 2-3 inches with 19-20 gauge needle. Give small amount and check for allergic reaction before giving complete dose.

153

What is sodium polystyrene sulfonate (Kayexalate) used for?

Used for hyperkalemia (removes potassium by exchanging sodium ions for potassium ions in the intestines)

154

What are corticosteroids used for?

immunosuppressive, anti-inflammatory

155

What are glucocorticosteroids used for?

have anti-inflammatory and antiallergenic effect used to relieve symptoms of Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA), adrenal insufficiency (Addison's), severe psoriasis, urticaria, chronic eczema, multiple myeloma, Hodgkins disease, leukemias, and collagen disease

156

What is the use of Erythromycin opthalmic ointment in the newborn?

Erythromcin (Ilotycin): antibiotic used prophylactically to prevent opthalmia neonatorum, which is caused by N. gonorrhoeae. Also effective against C. trachomatis.
Prevention of postpartum gonorrhea or chlamydia eye infections

157

What are the side effects of contraceptive therapy?

nausea, weight gain, spotting, changed menstrual flow, missed periods, depression, mood changes, chloasma, headaches, Consult doctor if symptoms don't resolve in 3 months

158

What symptoms should patient on contraceptive therapy report?

vaginal Discharge, breakthrough bleeding, yeast infection, blurred vision, severe headaches, dizziness, leg pain (increased risk of DVT), shortness of breath, acute abdominal pain

159

What is the minipill?

Oral contraceptive, taken daily, that contains ONLY progestin (Nor-QD, Ovrette)

160

What is Pyridium (phnazopyridine) and how does it work?

Urinary analgesic; Excreted through urinary tract and produces a local anesthetic effect on mucosa of the ureters and bladder. It acts within 30 minutes after oral administration.

161

What is Pyridium used for?

Relieves burning, pain, urgency, and frequency associated with UTIs. Also relieves bladder spasms which relieves resulting urinary retention

162

What should patients be taught about Pyridium?

will stain urine orange; stains anything urine touches

163

How does allopurinol (Zyloprim) work?

Blocks the terminal steps in uric acid formation by inhibiting the enzyme xanthing oxidase

164

What is allopurinol used for?

treatment of primary gout or gout secondary to antineoplastic (chemo, cell death)therapy. Is NOT effective in the treatment of acute attacks by gouty arthritis.

165

How does lactulose (Cephulac, Dupphulac) work?

acts as a stool softener by pulling water into the colon. Decreases ammonia levels

166

What is lactulose used for?

Hepatic encephalopathy (reduces formaton of ammonia in gut), laxative

Use in diabetics with caution (Contains some free lactose, galactose, and other sugars)

167

Beta-Adrenergic Blocking Agents

Antihypertensives; -lol; side effects: bradycardia, peripheral vasoconstriction, bronchospasms, wheezing, heart failure

168

ACE inhibitors

Antihypertensives; -pril; side effects: nausea, fatigue, headache, diarrhea, orthostatic hypotension, swelling of face, eyes, lips, tongue, difficulty breathing, dry cough
Prevents angiotensin I from converting to angiotensin II

169

Calcium Ion Agonists

Antihypertensives; -pine; side effects: hypotension and syncope

170

Alpha I adrenergic blocking agents

Antihypertensives; -zosin; Side effects: drowsiness, headache, dizziness, weakness, lethargy, tachycardia, fainting

171

Central Acting Alpha II Agonists

Antihypertensives; Ex: Clonidine;side effects: drowsiness, dry mouth, dizziness, depression

172

Direct Vasodilators

Antihypertensive;(Menoxadil/Rogain): Side effects:nausea, palpitations, tachycardia, numbness and tingling in the legs, nasal congestion, orthostatic hypotension, fever, chills, joint and muscle pain, skin eruptions

173

An easy way to remember the side effects of this classification is the slogan "wet and slow"

cholinergic

174

An easy way to remember the side effects of this classification is the slogan "fast and dry"

anticholinergic

175

Drug dosage is regulated by the PTT

heparin

176

This histamine antagonist inhibits the metabolism of certain benzodiazepines, beoculine, and beta blockers. This histamine antagonist can also cause gynecomastia in males.

Tagamet

177

Symptoms of this disorder are lethargy, constipation, and weight gain

hypothyroidism

178

Antidote for bradycardia and overdose of cholinergic agents

atropine

179

Diuretic of choice to treat cerebral edema

mannitol (Osmitrol) (Drug Class: osmotic diuretic)

180

This drug blocks the synthesis of T3 and T4 in the thyroid gland

(PTU, Propacil) propylthiouracil and (Tapazole) methimazole

181

Antidote for acetaminaphen or Tylenol poisoning

acetylcysteine (Mucomyst)

182

Use of this coating agent is like putting a Band-Aid on ulcerated mucosa

sucrafate (Carafate) (Drug Class: coating agent)

183

Nurses working with this must follow radiation precautions for handling the drug as well as the excretions

Iodine 131

184

This type of insulin is a clear solution

Regular

185

This type of insulin is a cloudy solution

NPH

186

this immune globulin can prevent hemolytic disease of the newborn

Rhogam

187

A patient who is allergic to sulfa is more likely to be allergic to this class of oral hypoglycemic drugs

sulfonylurea

188

Administration of this drug turns all body secretions red-orange in color

rifampin (Rifadin)

189

This type of insulin is the only one that can be administered by IV

Regular

190

When a diabetic patient refuses to eat it can result in this

Hypoglycemic

191

Looking for the drug suffix, the suffix of beta adrenergic blockers that decrease heart rate and decrease blood pressure and decrease cardiac ouput

lol

192

How should the dose of beta adrenergic blockers be stopped?

taper it off

193

This class of antihypertensives prevents the conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II, decreasing pressure and increasing renal blood flow

ACE inhibitors

194

What is the suffix of ACE inhibitors?

"pril"

195

This drug provides sodium excretion but saves potassium

spironolactone (Aldactone)

196

This drug class is specifically used to treat G.I. ulcerations from NSAID and aspirin use

Drug class:gastrointestinal prostaglandin
Drug: misoprostal (Cytotech)

197

Doses of this drug are based on prothrombin time.

warfarin (Coumadin)

198

The antidote for opiate agonists overdose

(Narcan) naloxone

199

This drug may be given PO or IV for tuberculosis as well as meningococcal infection

rifampin (Rifadin)

200

Name a drug other than aspirin that inhibits platelets.

clopidogrel (Plavix)

201

These drugs lower the affinity of gastric acid by decreasing the concentration of hydrogen ions.

Antacids

202

This unusual drug is antibacterial, trichimonacidal, protozoacidal, and amoebacidal

metroonidazole (Flagyl)take when you travel

203

This class of drugs inhibits movements of calcium ions across cell membranes, decreasing cardiac dysrrhthymias, decreasing heart rate, decreasing blood pressure

Calcium Channel Blockers -pine

204

This drug is administered to all newborns because the newborn gut is not yet colonized with bacteria to synthesize it

Vitamin K shot

205

A drug commonly used on babies to prevent a common eye infection in newborns is called opthalmia neonatorum

erythromycin opthalmic ointment (Ilotycin)

206

First line drug in the treatment of HIV infection

zidovudine (Retrovir)-AZT, ZDV given to pregnant females so that the baby does not get HIV)

207

this class of diuretics is used to treat severe fluid volume overload

loop diuretics

208

This class of antibiotics is particularly effective against skin and rickettsial infections (Lyme disease, acne, rocky spotted fever)

Tetracyclines

209

The drug dosage is regulated by the International Normalized Ratio or INR

warfarin or Coumadin

210

Other than urine output, a nursing measure to evaluate the degree of patient diuresis

Daily weight

211

This drug can be given to counteract neurologic side effects of INH and it is also the antidote for INH toxicity

Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine)

212

When hearing is damaged by aminoglycosides, it is this cranial nerve that is affected

eight (acoustic)

213

Oral thrush and vaginal yeast infection are examples of this complication of antibiotic therapy

Super infection or secondary infection

214

this antiviral drug is used specifically for influenza A and commonly used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease.

amantadine (Symmetrel)

215

this drug suffix is "mycin" so it is a mycin but it is not an aminoglycoside

Drug class: macroclides ex: erythromycin, azithromycin

216

Pediatric therapy is not recommended with this class of antibiotics due to risk of cartilage damage this class is also teratogenic

Quinolones (ex. Cipro, levaquin)

217

This antitubercular has a side effect of red-green color change

ethambutol (Myambutol)

218

A systemic antifungal given PO used to treat ringworm. The only one

griseofulvin microsize (Griseofulvin)

219

Names of lab test used to determine low and high plasma aminoglycoside levels

peaks and troughs

220

In order to prevent respiratory depression, check the records of post-op patients to determine if these drugs were given.

neuromuscular blocking agents (succinylcholine, usually paralyzing drugs)

221

This direct vasodilator is used topically for men with male pattern baldness

Rogaine or minoxidil

222

Symptoms of this disorder are tremor, weight loss, tachycardia and nervousness

hyperthyroidism

223

A lab value of 39 mg/dL serum glucose would indicate this

hypoglycemia

224

This recommendation should be given to a female patient taking an oral contraceptive pill concurrently with an antibiotic

use an alternative form of birth control

225

Jeff Foxworthy might like this side effect of vancomycin, but a patient would not

redneck "redman redneck syndrome"

226

This type of oral contraceptive pill contains progestin only

minipill

227

Alter ego or another name for penicillinase

Beta-lactamase

228

Medical term for damage to renal function that can result from aminoglycoside use.

nephrotoxicity

229

This common serious side effect of INH is worse in an alcoholic patient

liver toxicity or hepatotoxicity

230

This common OTC drug inhibits platelets

Aspirin

231

Trade or brand name for acyclovir

Zovirax

232

This antibiotic class in combination with loop diuretics can cause ototoxicity

aminoglycosides

233

Drug of choice to induce labor at term

oxytocin (Pitocin)

234

This class of drugs is frequently prescribed in combination with anti-hypertensives to potentiate the hypotensive result

Diuretics

235

This condition is caused by excessive production of T3 and T4, or TSH

Hyperthyroid

236

This condition can result from severe and untreated GERD.

Barret's esophagus, esophageal varices

237

A severe allergic reaction to an antibiotic

anaphylaxis

238

This systemic antifungal can have side effects of malaise, fever, chills, HA, vomiting: some nurses call it amphoterrible

Amphotericin B

239

Tooth enamel may be permanently stained yellow, green, or brown if given to a child under 8

tetracycline

240

Medical term for damage to hearing that can result from aminoglycoside use

ototoxicity