Biology Finals Notecard Flashcards


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1

The atomic number of chlorine is 17. The atomic number of magnesium is 12. What is the formula for magnesium chloride?
a. Mg2Cl2
b. MgCl2
c. Mg2Cl
d. MgCl
e. MgCl3

b. MgCl2

2

Which level of protein structure do the α helix and the β pleated sheet represent?
a. primary
b. primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary
c. secondary
d. tertiary
e. quaternary

c. secondary

3

Which of the following is not a polymer?
a. DNA
b. cellulose
c. glucose
d. starch
e. chitin

c. glucose

4

About 25 of the 92 natural elements are known to be essential to life. Which four of these 25 elements make up approximately 96% of living matter?
a. oxygen, hydrogen, calcium, nitrogen
b. carbon, oxygen, phosphorus, hydrogen
c. carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen
d. carbon, sodium, hydrogen, nitrogen
e. carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, calcium

c. carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen

5

A localized group of organisms that belong to the same species is called a
a. biosystem.
b. ecosystem.
c. population.
d. community.
e. family.

c. population.

6
card image

The two molecules shown in the figure above are best described as

a. enantiomers.
b. chain length isomers.
c. structural isomers.
d. optical isomers.
e. cis-trans isomers.

c. structural isomers.

7

Stanley Miller's 1953 experiments proved that
a. the conditions on early Earth were conducive to the abiotic synthesis of organic molecules.
b. life arose on Earth from simple inorganic molecules.
c. life arose on Earth from simple organic molecules, with energy from lightning and volcanoes.
d. the conditions on early Earth were conducive to the origin of life.
e. organic molecules can be synthesized abiotically under conditions that may have existed on early Earth.

e. organic molecules can be synthesized abiotically under conditions that may have existed on early Earth.

8

The label on a container of margarine lists "hydrogenated vegetable oil" as the major ingredient. What is the result of adding hydrogens to vegetable oil?
a. The hydrogenated vegetable oil has fewer trans fatty acids.
b. The hydrogenated vegetable oil has more "kinks" in the fatty acid chains.
c. The hydrogenated vegetable oil is less likely to clog arteries.
d. The hydrogenated vegetable oil stays solid at room temperature.
e. The hydrogenated vegetable oil has a lower melting point.

d. The hydrogenated vegetable oil stays solid at room temperature.

9

We can be sure that a mole of table sugar and a mole of vitamin C are equal in their
a. volume.
b. number of atoms.
c. number of molecules.
d. mass in daltons.
e. mass in grams.

c. number of molecules.

10

Humans can digest starch but not cellulose because
a. humans have enzymes that can hydrolyze the α glycosidic linkages of starch but not the β glycosidic linkages of cellulose.
b. humans have enzymes that can hydrolyze the β glycosidic linkages of starch but not the α glycosidic linkages of cellulose.
c. the monomer of starch is glucose, while the monomer of cellulose is glucose with a nitrogen-containing group.
d. humans harbor starch-digesting bacteria in the digestive tract.
e. the monomer of starch is glucose, while the monomer of cellulose is galactose.

a. humans have enzymes that can hydrolyze the α glycosidic linkages of starch but not the β glycosidic linkages of cellulose.

11

One liter of a solution of pH 2 has how many more hydrogen ions (H+) than 1 L of a solution of pH 6?
a. 16 times more
b. 4 times more
c. 10,000 times more
d. 100,000 times more
e. 40,000 times more

c. 10,000 times more

12

The element present in all organic molecules is
a. oxygen.
b. carbon.
c. phosphorus.
d. hydrogen.
e. nitrogen.

b. carbon.

13

Which of the following polymers contain nitrogen?
a. glycogen
b. starch
c. chitin
d. amylopectin
e. cellulose

c. chitin

14
card image

Which molecules shown above contain a carbonyl group?

a. A and B
b. B and C
c. B, C, and D
d. D and E
e. E and A

b. B and C

15

When the body's blood glucose level rises, the pancreas secretes insulin and, as a result, the blood glucose level declines. When the blood glucose level is low, the pancreas secretes glucagon and, as a result, the blood glucose level rises. Such regulation of the blood glucose level is the result of
a. positive feedback.
b. bioinformatic regulation.
c. catalytic feedback.
d. protein-protein interactions.
e. negative feedback.

e. negative feedback.

16

Which of the following types of cells utilize deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) as their genetic material but do not have their DNA encased within a nuclear envelope?
a. plant
b. animal
c. archaea
d. fungi
e. protists

c. archaea

17
card image

Which molecule shown above has a carbonyl functional group in the form of a ketone?

a. A
b. B
c. C
d. D
e. E

c. C

18

Which of the following descriptions best fits the class of molecules known as nucleotides?
a. a nitrogenous base and a phosphate group
b. a nitrogenous base and a pentose sugar
c. a nitrogenous base, a phosphate group, and a pentose sugar
d. a pentose sugar and a purine or pyrimidine
e. a phosphate group and an adenine or uracil

c. a nitrogenous base, a phosphate group, and a pentose sugar

19

What is the pH of a solution with a hydroxyl ion [OH-] concentration of 10-12 M?
a. pH 2
b. pH 4
c. pH 14
d. pH 12
e. pH 10

a. pH 2

20
card image

In the figure above, how many electrons does nitrogen have in its valence shell?

a. 7
b. 14
c. 8
d. 2
e. 5

e. 5

21
card image

The molecule shown in Figure 5.3 is a

a. polypeptide.
b. saturated fatty acid.
c. polysaccharide.
d. unsaturated fatty acid.
e. triacylglycerol.

d. unsaturated fatty acid.

22

A new organism is discovered in the forests of Costa Rica. Scientists there determine that the polypeptide sequence of hemoglobin from the new organism has 72 amino acid differences from humans, 65 differences from a gibbon, 49 differences from a rat, and 5 differences from a frog. These data suggest that the new organism
a. evolved at about the same time as frogs, which is much earlier than primates and mammals.
b. is more closely related to frogs than to humans and also evolved at about the same time as frogs, which is much earlier than primates and mammals.
c. is more closely related to humans than to rats.
d. is more closely related to frogs than to humans.
e. is more closely related to humans than to frogs.

d. is more closely related to frogs than to humans.

23
card image

What is the name of the functional group shown in the figure above?

a. ketone
b. hydroxyl
c. aldehyde
d. carboxyl
e. carbonyl

d. carboxyl

24

Which of the following statements best summarizes the differences between DNA and RNA?
a. DNA contains the base uracil, whereas RNA contains the base thymine.
b. DNA encodes hereditary information, whereas RNA does not.
c. DNA encodes hereditary information, whereas RNA does not; the bases in DNA form base-paired duplexes, whereas the bases in RNA do not; and DNA nucleotides contain a different sugar than RNA nucleotides.
d. DNA nucleotides contain a different sugar than RNA nucleotides.
e. The bases in DNA form base-paired duplexes, whereas the bases in RNA do not.

d. DNA nucleotides contain a different sugar than RNA nucleotides.

25
card image

Which of the following statements is true regarding the molecule illustrated in Figure 5.3?

a. It is a saturated fatty acid, a diet rich in this molecule may contribute to atherosclerosis, and molecules of this type are usually liquid at room temperature.
b. It is a saturated fatty acid.
c. Molecules of this type are usually liquid at room temperature.
d. It is a saturated fatty acid and a diet rich in this molecule may contribute to atherosclerosis.
e. A diet rich in this molecule may contribute to atherosclerosis.

c. Molecules of this type are usually liquid at room temperature.

26

According to Darwinian theory, which of the following exhibits the greatest fitness for evolutionary success?
a. the organism that produces its own nutrients most efficiently
b. the species with the longest life
c. the phylum with members that occupy the greatest number of habitats
d. the individuals within a population that have the greatest reproductive success
e. the community of organisms that is capable of living in the most nutrient-poor biome

d. the individuals within a population that have the greatest reproductive success

27

Which two functional groups are always found in amino acids?
a. carbonyl and amino
b. amino and sulfhydryl
c. ketone and methyl
d. carboxyl and amino
e. hydroxyl and carboxyl

d. carboxyl and amino

28

What methods may be used to elucidate the structures of purified proteins?
a. X-ray crystallography
b. bioinformatics
c. analysis of amino acid sequence of small fragments
d. NMR spectroscopy
e. both X-ray crystallography and NMR spectroscopy

e. both X-ray crystallography and NMR spectroscopy

29

Lactose, a sugar in milk, is composed of one glucose molecule joined by a glycosidic linkage to one galactose molecule. How is lactose classified?
a. as a monosaccharide
b. as a disaccharide
c. as a hexose
d. as a polysaccharide
e. as a pentose

b. as a disaccharide

30

Which of the following is a correct sequence of levels in life's hierarchy, proceeding downward from an individual animal?
a. organ system, nervous tissue, brain
b. nervous system, brain, nervous tissue, nerve cell
c. organism, organ system, tissue, cell, organ
d. organ system, tissue, molecule, cell
e. brain, organ system, nerve cell, nervous tissue

b. nervous system, brain, nervous tissue, nerve cell

31

One of the primary functions of RNA molecules is to
a. form the genes of higher organisms.
b. act as a pattern or blueprint to form DNA.
c. function in the synthesis of proteins.
d. make a copy of itself, thus ensuring genetic continuity.
e. transmit genetic information to offspring.

c. function in the synthesis of proteins.

32

Why does ice float in liquid water?
a. The ionic bonds between the molecules in ice prevent the ice from sinking.
b. Ice always has air bubbles that keep it afloat.
c. Hydrogen bonds stabilize and keep the molecules of ice farther apart than the water molecules of liquid water.
d. The high surface tension of liquid water keeps the ice on top.
e. The crystalline lattice of ice causes it to be denser than liquid water.

c. Hydrogen bonds stabilize and keep the molecules of ice farther apart than the water molecules of liquid water.

33

How many electron pairs does carbon share in order to complete its valence shell?
a. 3
b. 2
c. 1
d. 8
e. 4

e. 4

34
card image

Which molecule shown above contains a carboxyl group?

a. A
b. B
c. C
d. D
e. E

d. D

35

Which of the following are qualities of any good scientific hypothesis?
I. It is testable.
II. It is falsifiable.
III. It produces quantitative data.
IV. It produces results that can be replicated.

a. I only
b. II only
c. III only
d. I and II
e. III and IV

d. I and II

36

Which bonds are created during the formation of the primary structure of a protein?
a. peptide bonds, hydrogen bonds, and disulfide bonds
b. phosphodiester bonds
c. disulfide bonds
d. peptide bonds
e. hydrogen bonds

d. peptide bonds

37

Liquid water's high specific heat is mainly a consequence of the
a. high specific heat of oxygen and hydrogen atoms.
b. small size of the water molecules.
c. absorption and release of heat when hydrogen bonds break and form.
d. higher density of liquid water than solid water (ice).
e. fact that water is a poor heat conductor.

c. absorption and release of heat when hydrogen bonds break and form.

38

The tertiary structure of a protein is the
a. bonding together of several polypeptide chains by weak bonds.
b. order in which amino acids are joined in a polypeptide chain.
c. overall protein structure resulting from the aggregation of two or more polypeptide subunits.
d. organization of a polypeptide chain into an α helix or β pleated sheet.
e. unique three-dimensional shape of the fully folded polypeptide.

e. unique three-dimensional shape of the fully folded polypeptide.

39

What is the difference between covalent bonds and ionic bonds?
a. Covalent bonds involve the sharing of pairs of electrons between atoms; ionic bonds involve the sharing of single electrons between atoms.
b. Covalent bonds involve the sharing of electrons between atoms; ionic bonds involve the electrical attraction between atoms.
c. Covalent bonds involve the sharing of electrons between atoms; ionic bonds involve the sharing of protons between atoms.
d. Covalent bonds involve the transfer of electrons between atoms; ionic bonds involve the sharing of electrons between atoms.
e. Covalent bonds are formed between atoms to form molecules; ionic bonds are formed between atoms to form compounds.

b. Covalent bonds involve the sharing of electrons between atoms; ionic bonds involve the electrical attraction between atoms.

40

Organic chemistry is currently defined as
a. the study of vital forces.
b. the study of hydrocarbons.
c. the study of carbon compounds.
d. the study of compounds made only by living cells.
e. the study of natural (as opposed to synthetic) compounds.

c. the study of carbon compounds.

41

Which of these is an example of inductive reasoning?
a. These organisms live in sunny parts of this area so they are able to photosynthesize.
b. If two species are members of the same genus, they are more alike than each of them could be to a different genus.
c. Hundreds of individuals of a species have been observed and all are photosynthetic; therefore, the species is photosynthetic.
d. If protists are all single-celled, then they are incapable of aggregating.
e. If horses are always found grazing on grass, they can be only herbivores and not omnivores.

c. Hundreds of individuals of a species have been observed and all are photosynthetic; therefore, the species is photosynthetic.

42

Hydrophobic substances such as vegetable oil are
a. polar substances that have an affinity for water.
b. nonpolar substances that repel water molecules.
c. nonpolar substances that have an attraction for water molecules.
d. polar substances that repel water molecules.
e. charged molecules that hydrogen-bond with water molecules.

b. nonpolar substances that repel water molecules.

43

The slight negative charge at one end of one water molecule is attracted to the slight positive charge of another water molecule. What is this attraction called?
a. a hydrophilic bond
b. a van der Waals interaction
c. a covalent bond
d. a hydrogen bond
e. an ionic bond

d. a hydrogen bond

44

One mole (mol) of glucose (molecular mass = 180 daltons) is
a. 180 × 1023 molecules of glucose.
b. 180 kilograms of glucose.
c. 1 kg of glucose dissolved in 1 L of solution.
d. both 180 grams of glucose and 6.02 × 1023 molecules of glucose.
e. the largest amount of glucose that can be dissolved in 1 L of solution.

d. both 180 grams of glucose and 6.02 × 1023 molecules of glucose.

45

Which of the following statements best describes the carbon atoms present in a seed-eating bird?
a. The carbon atoms ultimately came from carbon dioxide incorporated into sugars through photosynthesis.
b. The carbon atoms are ultimately derived from coal.
c. The carbon atoms ultimately came from the soil.
d. The carbon atoms ultimately came from simple organic compounds that formed abiotically from inorganic carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen atoms.
e. Inorganic carbon atoms in the seeds were incorporated into organic molecules by the bird.

a. The carbon atoms ultimately came from carbon dioxide incorporated into sugars through photosynthesis.

46

Humans and mice differ because
a. their cells have different small organic molecules.
b. their cells make different types of large biological molecules.
c. their cells make different types of lipids.
d. their cells make different types of proteins.
e. their cells have some differences in the sequence of nucleotides in their nucleic acids.

e. their cells have some differences in the sequence of nucleotides in their nucleic acids.

47
card image

How many grams would be equal to 1 mol of the compound shown in the figure above?
(carbon = 12, oxygen = 16, hydrogen = 1)

a. 60
b. 150
c. 29
d. 30
e. 342

a. 60

48

Which of the following categories includes all others in the list?
a. monosaccharide
b. carbohydrate
c. polysaccharide
d. disaccharide
e. starch

b. carbohydrate

49

Which of the following best summarizes the relationship between dehydration reactions and hydrolysis?
a. Dehydration reactions assemble polymers, and hydrolysis reactions break down polymers.
b. Hydrolysis creates monomers, and dehydration reactions break down polymers.
c. Dehydration reactions ionize water molecules and add hydroxyl groups to polymers; hydrolysis reactions release hydroxyl groups from polymers.
d. Dehydration reactions can occur only after hydrolysis.
e. Dehydration reactions eliminate water from lipid membranes, and hydrolysis makes lipid membranes water permeable.

a. Dehydration reactions assemble polymers, and hydrolysis reactions break down polymers.

50
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Thalidomide and L-dopa, shown below, are examples of pharmaceutical drugs that occur as enantiomers, or molecules that

a. are mirror images of one another and have the same biological activity.
b. are structural isomers.
c. are mirror images of one another.
d. have identical three-dimensional shapes.
e. are cis-trans isomers.

c. are mirror images of one another.

51
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Based on your knowledge of the polarity of water molecules, the solute molecule depicted here is most likely

a. without charge.
b. hydrophobic.
c. nonpolar.
d. negatively charged.
e. positively charged.

e. positively charged.

52

What is the term used for a protein molecule that assists in the proper folding of other proteins?
a. enzyme protein
b. denaturing protein
c. tertiary protein
d. chaperonin
e. renaturing protein

d. chaperonin

53

What results from an unequal sharing of electrons between atoms?
a. a hydrogen bond
b. a nonpolar covalent bond
c. a polar covalent bond
d. a hydrophobic interaction
e. an ionic bond

c. a polar covalent bond

54

What is the chemical reaction mechanism by which cells make polymers from monomers?
a. hydrolysis
b. dehydration reactions
c. the formation of disulfide bridges between monomers
d. ionic bonding of monomers
e. phosphodiester linkages

b. dehydration reactions

55

Which of these provides evidence of the common ancestry of all life?
a. structure of the nucleus
b. near universality of the genetic code
c. structure of cilia
d. structure of chloroplasts
e. ubiquitous use of catalysts by living systems

b. near universality of the genetic code.